3D and Circuit Integration of MEMS

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3D and Circuit Integration of MEMS

PDF Free Download | 3D and Circuit Integration of MEMS by Masayoshi Esashi

Contents of 3D and Circuit Integration of MEMS

  • Part I Introduction
  • Overview
  • Masayoshi Esashi
  • References
  • Part II System on Chip
  • Bulk Micromachining
  • Process Basis of Bulk Micromachining Technologies
  • Bulk Micromachining Based on Wafer Bonding
  • SOI MEMS
  • Cavity SOI Technology
  • Silicon on Glass Processes: Dissolved Wafer Process (DWP)
  • Single-Wafer Single-Side Processes
  • Single-Crystal Reactive Etching and Metallization Process (SCREAM)
  • Sacrificial Bulk Micromachining (SBM)
  • Silicon on Nothing (SON)
  • References
  • Enhanced Bulk Micromachining Based on MIS Process
  • Repeating MIS Cycle for Multilayer D structures or Multi-sensor
  • Integration
  • Pressure Sensors with PS Structure
  • P+G Integrated Sensors
  • Pressure Sensor Fabrication – From MIS Updated to TUB
  • Extension of MIS Process for Various Advanced MEMS Devices
  • References
  • Epitaxial Poly Si Surface Micromachining
  • Masayoshi Esashi
  • Process Condition of Epi-poly Si
  • MEMS Devices Using Epi-poly Si
  • References
  • Poly-SiGe Surface Micromachining
  • Carrie W Low, Sergio F Almeida, Emmanuel P Quévy, and Roger T Howe
  • Introduction
  • SiGe Applications in IC and MEMS
  • Desired SiGe Properties for MEMS
  • SiGe Deposition
  • Deposition Methods
  • Material Properties Comparison
  • Cost Analysis
  • LPCVD Polycrystalline SiGe
  • Vertical Furnace
  • Particle Control
  • Process Monitoring and Maintenance
  • In-line Metrology for Film Thickness and Ge Content
  • Process Space Mapping
  • CMEMS® Process
  • CMOS Interface Challenges
  • CMEMS Process Flow
  • Top Metal Module
  • Plug Module
  • Structural SiGe Module
  • Slit Module
  • Structure Module
  • Spacer Module
  • Electrode Module
  • Pad Module
  • Release
  • Al–Ge Bonding for Microcaps
  • Poly-SiGe Applications
  • Resonator for Electronic Timing
  • Nano-electro-mechanical Switches
  • References
  • Metal Surface Micromachining
  • Minoru Sasaki
  • Background of Surface Micromachining
  • Static Device
  • Static Structure Fixed after the Single Movement
  • Dynamic Device
  • MEMS Switch
  • Digital Micromirror Device
  • Summary
  • References
  • Heterogeneously Integrated Aluminum Nitride MEMS
  • Resonators and Filters
  • Overview of Integrated Aluminum Nitride MEMS
  • Heterogeneous Integration of Aluminum Nitride MEMS Resonators with
  • CMOS Circuits
  • Aluminum Nitride MEMS Process Flow
  • Encapsulation of Aluminum Nitride MEMS Resonators and Filters
  • Redistribution Layers on Top of Encapsulated Aluminum Nitride MEMS
  • Selected Individual Resonator and Filter Frequency Responses
  • Flip-chip Bonding of Aluminum Nitride MEMS with CMOS
  • Heterogeneously Integrated Self-Healing Filters
  • Application of Statistical Element Selection (SES) to AlN MEMS Filters with CMOS Circuits
  • Measurement of D Hybrid Integrated Chip Stack
  • References
  • MEMS Using CMOS Wafer
  • Weileun Fang, Sheng-Shian Li, Yi Chiu, and Ming-Huang Li
  • Introduction: CMOS MEMS Architectures and Advantages
  • Process Modules for CMOS MEMS
  • Process Modules for Thin Films
  • Metal Sacrificial
  • Oxide Sacrificial
  • TiN-composite (TiN-C)
  • Process Modules for the Substrate
  • SF and XeF (Dry Isotropic)
  • KOH and TMAH (Wet Anisotropic)
  • RIE and DRIE (Front-side RIE, Backside DRIE)
  • The P M CMOS Platform ( μm)
  • Accelerometer
  • Pressure Sensor
  • Resonators
  • The P M CMOS Platform ( μm)
  • Tactile Sensors
  • IR Sensor
  • Resonators
  • Others
  • CMOS MEMS with Add-on Materials
  • Gas and Humidity Sensors
  • Metal Oxide
  • Polymer
  • Biochemical Sensors
  • Pressure and Acoustic Sensors
  • Microfluidic Structures
  • Monolithic Integration of Circuits and Sensors
  • Multi-sensor Integration
  • Gas Sensors
  • Physical Sensors
  • Readout Circuit Integration
  • Resistive Sensors
  • Capacitive Sensors
  • Inductive Sensors
  • Resonant Sensors
  • Issues and Concerns
  • Residual Stresses, CTE Mismatch, and Creep of Thin Films
  • Initial Deformation – Residual Stress
  • Thermal Deformation – Thermal Expansion Coefficient Mismatch
  • Long-time Stability – Creep
  • Quality Factor, Materials Loss, and Temperature Stability
  • Anchor Loss
  • Thermoelastic Damping (TED)
  • Material and Interface Loss
  • Dielectric Charging
  • Nonlinearity and Phase Noise in Oscillators
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Wafer Transfer
  • Introduction
  • Film Transfer
  • Device Transfer (via-last)
  • Device Transfer (Via-First)
  • Chip Level Transfer
  • References
  • Piezoelectric MEMS
  • T Takeshi Kobayashi (AIST)
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental
  • PZT Thin Films Property as an Actuator
  • PZT Thin Film Composition and Orientation
  • PZT Thin Film Deposition
  • Sputtering
  • Sol–Gel
  • Orientation Control
  • Thick Film Deposition
  • Electrode Materials and Lifetime of PZT Thin Films
  • PZT–MEMS Fabrication Process
  • Cantilever and Microscanner Poling
  • References
  • Part III Bonding, Sealing and Interconnection
  • Anodic Bonding
  • Masayoshi Esashi
  • Principle
  • Distortion
  • Influence of Anodic Bonding to Circuits
  • Anodic Bonding with Various Materials, Structures and Conditions
  • Various Combinations
  • Anodic Bonding with Intermediate Thin Films
  • Variation of Anodic Bonding
  • Glass Reflow Process
  • References
  • Direct Bonding
  • Hideki Takagi
  • Wafer Direct Bonding
  • Hydrophilic Wafer Bonding
  • Surface Activated Bonding at Room Temperature
  • References
  • Metal Bonding
  • Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding (SLID)
  • Au/In and Cu/In
  • Au/Ga and Cu/Ga
  • Au/Sn and Cu/Sn
  • Void Formation
  • Metal Thermocompression Bonding
  • Interface Formation
  • Grain Reorientation
  • Grain Growth
  • Eutectic Bonding
  • Au/Si
  • Al/Ge
  • Au/Sn
  • References
  • Reactive Bonding
  • Motivation
  • Fundamentals of Reactive Bonding
  • Material Systems
  • State of the Art
  • Deposition Concepts of Reactive Material Systems
  • Physical Vapor Deposition
  • Conclusion Physical Vapor Deposition and Patterning
  • Electrochemical Deposition of Reactive Material Systems
  • Dual Bath Technology
  • Single Bath Technology
  • Conclusion DBT and SBT
  • Vertical Reactive Material Systems With D Periodicity
  • Dimensioning
  • Fabrication
  • Conclusion
  • Bonding With RMS
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Polymer Bonding
  • Introduction
  • Materials for Polymer Wafer Bonding
  • Polymer Adhesion Mechanisms
  • Properties of Polymers for Wafer Bonding
  • Polymers Used in Wafer Bonding
  • Polymer Wafer Bonding Technology
  • Process Parameters in Polymer Wafer Bonding
  • Localized Polymer Wafer Bonding
  • Precise Wafer-to-Wafer Alignment in Polymer Wafer Bonding
  • Practical Examples of Polymer Wafer Bonding Processes
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • Soldering by Local Heating
  • Soldering in MEMS Packaging
  • Laser Soldering
  • Resistive Heating and Soldering
  • Inductive Heating and Soldering
  • Other Localized Soldering Processes
  • Self-propagative Reaction Heating
  • Ultrasonic Frictional Heating
  • References
  • Packaging, Sealing, and Interconnection
  • Wafer Level Packaging
  • Sealing
  • Reaction Sealing
  • Deposition Sealing (Shell Packaging)
  • Metal Compression Sealing
  • Interconnection
  • Vertical Feedthrough Interconnection
  • Through Glass via (TGV) Interconnection
  • Through Si via (TSiV) Interconnection
  • Lateral Feedthrough Interconnection
  • Interconnection by Electroplating
  • References
  • Vacuum Packaging
  • Problems of Vacuum Packaging
  • Vacuum Packaging by Anodic Bonding
  • Packaging by Anodic Bonding with Controlled Cavity Pressure
  • Vacuum Packaging by Metal Bonding
  • Vacuum Packaging by Deposition
  • Hermeticity Testing
  • References
  • Buried Channels in Monolithic Si
  • Buried Channel/Cavity in LSI and MEMS
  • Monolithic SON Technology and Related Technologies
  • Applications of SON
  • References
  • Through-substrate Vias
  • Configurations of TSVs
  • Solid TSVs
  • Hollow TSVs
  • Air-gap TSVs
  • TSV Applications in MEMS
  • Signal Conduction to the Wafer Backside
  • CMOS-MEMS D Integration
  • MEMS and CMOS D Integration
  • Wafer-level Vacuum Packaging
  • Other Applications
  • Considerations for TSV in MEMS
  • Fundamental TSV Fabrication Technologies
  • Deep Hole Etching
  • Deep Reactive Ion Etching
  • Laser Ablation
  • Insulator Formation
  • Silicon Dioxide Insulators
  • Polymer Insulators
  • Air-gaps
  • Conductor Formation
  • Polysilicon
  • Single Crystalline Silicon
  • Tungsten
  • Copper
  • Other Conductor Materials
  • Polysilicon TSVs
  • Solid Polysilicon TSVs
  • Air-gap Polysilicon TSVs
  • Silicon TSVs
  • Solid Silicon TSVs
  • Air-gap Silicon TSVs
  • Metal TSVs
  • Solid Metal TSVs
  • Hollow Metal TSVs
  • Air-gap Metal TSVs

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