Internal Combustion Engines by R.k. Rajput

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A Textbook of Internal Combustion Engines by R. k. Rajput

PDF Free Download | A Textbook of Internal Combustion Engines (Including Air Compressors, Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion) by R. k. Rajput

Contents of Internal Combustion Engines eBook

  • BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
  • Definition of Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamic Systems
  • System, boundary and surroundings
  • Closed system
  • Open system
  • Isolated system
  • Adiabatic system
  • Homogeneous system
  • Heterogeneous system
  • Pure Substance
  • Thermodynamic Equilibrium
  • Properties of Systems
  • State
  • Process
  • Cycle
  • Point Function
  • Path Function
  • Temperature
  • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
  • Pressure
  • Definition of pressure
  • Unit of pressure
  • Types of pressure measurement devices
  • Reversible and Irreversible Processes
  • Energy, Work and Heat
  • Energy
  • Work and heat
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
  • The Perfect Gas
  • The characteristic equation of state
  • Specific heats
  • Joule’s law
  • Relationship between two specific heats
  • Enthalpy
  • Ratio of specific heats
  • Steady Flow Energy Equation
  • Energy relations for flow process
  • Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Performance of Heat Engine and Reversed Heat Engine
  • Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Clausius statement
  • Kelvin-Planck statement
  • Entropy
  • Introduction
  • Temperature-entropy diagram
  • Characteristics of entropy
  • The Third Law of Thermodynamics
  • Available and Unavailable Energy
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • INTRODUCTION TO INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
  • Heat Engines
  • Development of I C Engines
  • Classification of I C Engines
  • Application of I C Engines
  • Engine Cycle-Energy Balance
  • Basic Idea of I C Engines
  • Different Parts of I C Engines
  • Terms Connected with I C Engines
  • Working Cycles
  • Indicator Diagram
  • Four Stroke Cycle Engines
  • Two Stroke Cycle Engines
  • Intake for Compression Ignition Engines
  • Comparison of Four Stroke and Two Stroke Cycle Engines
  • Comparison of Spark Ignition (S I ) and Compression Ignition (C I )
  • Engines
  • Comparison between a Petrol Engine and a Diesel Engine
  • How to Tell a Two Stroke Cycle Engine from a Four Stroke
  • Cycle Engine ?
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • AIR STANDARD CYCLES
  • Definition of a Cycle
  • Air Standard Efficiency
  • The Carnot Cycle
  • Constant Volume or Otto Cycle
  • Constant Pressure or Diesel Cycle
  • Dual Combustion Cycle
  • Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Combustion Cycles
  • Efficiency versus compression ratio
  • For the same compression ratio and the same heat input
  • For constant maximum pressure and heat supplied
  • Atkinson Cycle
  • Ericsson Cycle
  • Brayton Cycle
  • Stirling Cycle
  • Miller Cycle
  • Lenoir Cycle
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • FUEL-AIR AND ACTUAL CYCLES
  • Fuel-air Cycles
  • Introduction
  • Factors considered for fuel-air cycle calculations
  • Assumptions made for fuel-air cycle analysis
  • Importance of fuel-air cycle
  • Variable specific heats
  • Effect of variation of specific heats
  • Dissociation
  • Thermal efficiency and fuel consumption
  • Effect of common engine variables
  • Characteristics of constant volume fuel-air cycle
  • Combustion charts
  • Gas tables
  • Actual Cycles
  • Introduction
  • Causes of deviation of actual cycles from fuel-air cycles
  • Real fuel-air engine cycles
  • Difference between real cycle and fuel-air cycle
  • Comparison of operations and working media for ‘air cycle’,
  • fuel-air cycle’ and ‘actual cycle’ of S I engines
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • COMBUSTION IN S I ENGINES
  • Introduction
  • Definition of combustion
  • Ignition limits
  • Combustion Phenomenon
  • Normal combustion
  • Abnormal combustion
  • Effect of Engine Variables on Ignition Lag
  • Spark Advance and Factors Affecting Ignition Timing
  • Pre-ignition
  • Detonation
  • Introduction
  • Process of detonation or knocking
  • Theories of detonation
  • Effects of detonation
  • Factors affecting detonation/knocks
  • Performance Number (PN)
  • Highest Useful Compression Ratio (HUCR)
  • Combustion Chamber Design—S I Engines
  • Induction swirl
  • Squish and tumble
  • Quench area
  • Turbulence
  • Flame propagation
  • Swirl ratio
  • Surface-to-volume ratio
  • Stroke-to-bore ratio
  • Compression ratio (C R )
  • Some Types of Combustion Chambers
  • Divided combustion chambers
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • COMBUSTION IN C I ENGINES
  • Introduction
  • Combustion Phenomenon in C I Engines
  • Fundamentals of the Combustion Process in Diesel Engines
  • Delay Period (or Ignition Lag) in C I Engines
  • Diesel Knock
  • C I Engine Combustion Chambers
  • Primary considerations in the design of combustion
  • chambers for C I engines
  • Basic methods of generating air swirl in C I engines
  • combustion chambers
  • Types of combustion chambers
  • Cold Starting of C I Engines
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • AIR CAPACITY OF FOUR STROKE ENGINES
  • Introduction
  • Ideal Air Capacity
  • Volumetric Efficiency
  • Effect of Various Factors on Volumetric Efficiency
  • Inlet Valve Mach Index
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • TWO STROKE ENGINES
  • General Aspects
  • Construction and working
  • Comparison between two-stroke cycle and four-stroke
  • cycle engines
  • Disadvantages of two-stroke S I engine compared to
  • two-stroke C I engine
  • Reasons for use of two-stroke C I engines for marine
  • propulsion
  • Reasons for the use of two-stroke S I engines for low horse
  • power two wheelers
  • Intake for Two stroke Cycle Engines
  • Scavenging Process
  • Scavenging Parameters
  • Scavenging Systems
  • Crankcase Scavenging
  • Scavenging Pumps and Blowers
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND FUELS
  • Chemical Thermodynamics
  • General aspects
  • Basic chemistry
  • Fuels
  • Combustion equations
  • Theoretical air and excess air
  • Stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio
  • Air-fuel ratio from analysis of products
  • Analysis of exhaust and flue gas
  • Internal energy and enthalpy of reaction
  • Heating values of fuels
  • Adiabatic flame temperature
  • Chemical equilibrium
  • Actual combustion analysis
  • Conventional Fuels (For I C Engines)
  • Introduction
  • Desirable properties of good I C engines fuels
  • Gaseous fuels
  • Liquid fuels
  • Structure of petroleum
  • Petroleum and composition of crude oil
  • Fuels for spark-ignition engines
  • Knock rating of S I engines fuels
  • Miscellaneous properties of S I engine fuels
  • Diesel fuel
  • Alternative Fuels for I C Engines
  • General aspects
  • Advantages and disadvantages of using alternative fuels
  • Alcohol
  • Alcohol-gasoline fuel blends
  • Hydrogen
  • Natural gas (methane)
  • LPG and LNG
  • Biogas
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • FUEL/AIR MIXTURE REQUIREMENTS
  • Introduction
  • Fuel/Air Mixture Requirements for Steady Running
  • Optimum Fuel/Air Ratios
  • Idling and Low Load
  • Normal Power Range or Cruise Range
  • Maximum Power Range
  • Transient Mixture Requirements
  • Starting and warming up mixture requirements
  • Mixture requirements for acceleration
  • Effects of Operating Variables on Mixture Requirements
  • Mixture Requirements for Diesel Engines
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • CARBURETION AND CARBURETTORS –
  • Introduction
  • Induction System
  • Factors Influencing Carburetion
  • Mixture Requirements
  • Distribution
  • Transient Mixture Requirements
  • A Simple or Elementary Carburettor
  • Complete Carburettor
  • Carburettors
  • Essential features of good commercial carburettor for
  • automotive engines
  • Types of carburettors
  • Description of some important makes of carburettors
  • Petrol Injection
  • Drawbacks of modern carburettors
  • Introduction to fuel injection
  • Direct injection
  • Indirect injection
  • Injection considerations
  • Comparison of petrol injection and carburetted fuel
  • supply systems
  • Electronic fuel injection
  • Theory of Simple Carburettor
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS FOR C I ENGINES
  • Introduction
  • Functional Requirements of an Injection System
  • Functions of a Fuel Injection System
  • Fuel Injection Systems
  • Air injection
  • Solid or airless injection
  • Fuel Pump and Fuel Injector (Atomiser)
  • Fuel pump
  • Fuel atomiser or injector
  • Faults, causes and remedies of injectors
  • Types of Nozzles and Fuel Spray Patterns
  • Main requirements of an injector nozzle
  • Classification and description of nozzles
  • Engine Starting Systems
  • Fuel Injection Computation in C I Engines
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • IGNITION SYSTEMS (S I ENGINES)
  • Introduction
  • Requirements of an Ignition System
  • Basic Ignition Systems
  • Battery (or Coil) Ignition System
  • Magneto Ignition System
  • Firing Order
  • Ignition Timing
  • Spark Plugs
  • Limitations of Conventional Ignition
  • Electronic Ignition Systems
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • ENGINE FRICTION AND LUBRICATION
  • Introduction
  • Total Engine Friction
  • Effect of Engine Parameters on Engine Friction
  • Determination of Engine Friction
  • Lubrication
  • Definition and objects
  • Behaviour of a journal in its bearing
  • Properties of lubricants
  • Types of lubricants
  • Lubrication Systems
  • Introduction
  • Wet sump lubrication system
  • Dry sump lubrication system
  • Mist lubrication system
  • Lubrication of different engine parts
  • Lubrication of ball and roller bearings
  • Oil filters
  • Crankcase Ventilation
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • ENGINE COOLING
  • Necessity of Engine Cooling
  • Areas of Heat Flow in Engines
  • Gas Temperature Variation
  • Heat Transfer, Temperature Distribution and Temperature Profiles
  • Heat transfer
  • Temperature distribution
  • Temperature profiles
  • Effects of Operating Variables on Engine Heat Transfer
  • Cooling Air and Water Requirements
  • Cooling Systems
  • Air-cooling system
  • Water/liquid cooling system
  • Components of Water Cooling System
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • SUPERCHARGING OF I C ENGINES
  • Purpose of Supercharging
  • Supercharging of S I Engines
  • Naturally aspirated cycle of operation
  • Supercharged cycle of operation
  • Comparison of actual naturally aspirated and supercharged
  • engine pressure-volume diagrams
  • Boost pressure and pressure ratio
  • The effect of pressure ratio on air charge temperature
  • Thermodynamic cycle and supercharging power
  • Supercharging limits of S I engines
  • Supercharging of C I Engines
  • Supercharging limits of C I engines
  • Modification of an Engine for Supercharging
  • Superchargers
  • Supercharging Arrangements
  • Turbochargers
  • Introduction
  • Altitude compensation
  • Turbocharging – Buchi system
  • Methods of turbocharging
  • Limitations of turbocharging
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • TESTING AND PERFORMANCE OF I C ENGINES
  • Introduction
  • Performance Parameters
  • Basic Measurements
  • Engine Performance Curves
  • Comparison of Petrol and Diesel Engines – Fuel Consumption
  • Load Outputs and Exhaust Composition
  • Governing of I C Engine
  • Noise Abatement
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • AIR POLLUTION FROM I C ENGINES AND ITS CONTROL
  • Introduction
  • Pollutants
  • Pollution derived from combustion products
  • Mixture strength and combustion product characteristics
  • Spark Ignition (S I ) Engine Emissions
  • Crankcase emission
  • Evaporative emission
  • Exhaust emission
  • S I Engine Emission Control
  • Modification in the engine design and operating parameters
  • Exhaust gas oxidation
  • Exhaust emission control by fuel variation
  • Blow-by control
  • Evaporation emission control device (EECD)
  • Control of oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
  • Total emission control packages
  • Diesel Engine Emissions
  • Diesel Smoke and Control
  • Exhaust smoke
  • Causes of smoke
  • Measurement of smoke
  • Control of smoke
  • Diesel odour and control
  • Comparison of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions
  • Zero Emission
  • Air Pollution from Gas Turbines and its Control
  • Effects of Engine Emissions on Human Health
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • MISCELLANEOUS ENGINES
  • Duel-fuel and Multi-fuel Engines
  • Duel-fuel engines
  • Multi-fuel engines
  • Stratified Charge Engine
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Advantages and disadvantages of stratified charge engines
  • Stirling Engine
  • Stirling cycle
  • Working principle of stirling engine
  • Differences between carnot and stirling engines
  • Engine geometry and driving mechanism
  • The Wankel Rotary Combustion (RC) Engine
  • Introduction
  • Construction and working
  • Features
  • Constructional and other details of Wankel engine
  • Performance of Wankel engine
  • Advantages and applications of rotary combustion engines
  • Why Wankel rotary engine could not become successful ?
  • Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engines
  • Introduction
  • Methods to obtain variable compression ratio
  • Analysis of VCR engine
  • Performance of VCR engine
  • Free-Piston Engine Plant
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • AIR COMPRESSORS
  • General Aspects
  • Classification of Air Compressors
  • Reciprocating Compressors
  • Construction and working of a reciprocating compressor (single-stage)
  • Single-stage compressor : equation for work
  • (neglecting clearance)
  • Equation for work (with clearance volume)
  • Volumetric efficiency
  • Actual p-V (indicator) diagram for single-stage compressor
  • Multi-stage compression
  • Efficiency of compressor
  • How to increase isothermal efficiency ?
  • Clearance in compressors
  • Effect of clearance volume
  • Free air delivered (F A D ) and displacement
  • Compressor performance
  • Effect of atmospheric conditions on the output of a compressor
  • Control of compressors
  • Arrangement of reciprocating compressors
  • Intercooler
  • Compressed air motors
  • Reciprocating air motor
  • Rotary type air motor
  • Rotary Compressors
  • Classification
  • Displacement compressors
  • Steady-flow compressors
  • Comparison between Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors
  • Comparison between Reciprocating and Rotary Air Compressors
  • Comparison betweeen Centrifugal and Axial Flow Compressors
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples
  • GAS TURBINES AND JET PROPULSION
  • Gas Turbines—General Aspects
  • Classification of Gas Turbines
  • Merits of Gas Turbines
  • Constant Pressure Combustion Turbines
  • Open cycle gas turbines
  • Methods for improvement of thermal efficiency of open cycle
  • gas turbine plant
  • Effect of operating variables on thermal efficiency
  • Closed cycle gas turbine (constant pressure or joule cycle)
  • Merits and demerits of closed cycle gas turbine over open
  • cycle gas turbine
  • Constant Volume Combustion Turbines
  • Uses of Gas Turbines
  • Gas Turbine Fuels
  • Jet Propulsion
  • Turbo-jet
  • Turbo-prop
  • Ram-jet
  • Pulse-jet engine
  • Rocket engines
  • Highlights
  • Objective Type Questions
  • Theoretical Questions
  • Unsolved Examples

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