**Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations by Lymon C. Reese**

## Contents of Shallow and Deep Foundations

- Historical Use of Foundations
- Kinds of Foundations and their Uses
- Spread Footings and Mats
- Deep Foundations
- Hybrid Foundations
- Concepts in Design
- Obtain Information on Geology at Site
- Obtain Information on Magnitude and Nature of Loads on Foundation
- Obtain Information on Properties of Soil at Site
- Consider Long-Term Effects
- Pay Attention to Analysis
- Provide Recommendations for Tests of Deep Foundations
- Observe the Behavior of the Foundation of a Completed Structure
- Problems
- Engineering Geology
- Introduction
- Nature of Soil Affected by Geologic Processes
- Nature of Transported Soil
- Weathering and Residual Soil
- Nature of Soil Affected by Volcanic Processes
- Nature of Glaciated Soil
- Karst Geology
- Available Data on Regions in the United States
- U S Geological Survey and State Agencies
- Examples of the Application of Engineering Geology
- Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics
- Introduction
- Data Needed for the Design of Foundations
- Soil and Rock Classification
- Position of the Water Table
- Shear Strength and Density
- Deformability Characteristics
- Prediction of Changes in Conditions and the Environment
- Nature of Soil
- Grain-Size Distribution
- Types of Soil and Rock
- Mineralogy of Common Geologic Materials
- Water Content and Void Ratio
- Saturation of Soil
- Weight–Volume Relationships
- Atterberg Limits and the Unified Soils Classification System
- Concept of Effective Stress
- Laboratory Tests for Consolidation of Soils
- Spring and Piston Model of Consolidation
- Determination of Initial Total Stresses
- Calculation of Total and Effective Stresses
- The Role of Effective Stress in Soil Mechanics
- Analysis of Consolidation and Settlement
- Time Rates of Settlement
- One-Dimensional Consolidation Testing
- The Consolidation Curve
- Calculation of Total Settlement
- Calculation of Settlement Due to Consolidation
- Reconstruction of the Field Consolidation Curve
- Effects of Sample Disturbance on Consolidation Properties
- Correlation of Consolidation Indices with Index Tests
- Comments on Accuracy of Settlement Computations
- Shear Strength of Soils
- Friction Between Two Surfaces in Contact
- Direct Shear Testing
- Triaxial Shear Testing
- Drained Triaxial Tests on Sand
- Triaxial Shear Testing of Saturated Clays
- The SHANSEP Method
- Other Types of Shear Testing for Soils
- Selection of the Appropriate Testing Method
- Investigation of Subsurface Conditions
- Methods of Advancing Borings
- Wash-Boring Technique
- Continuous-Flight Auger with Hollow Core
- Methods of Sampling
- Introduction
- Sampling with Thin-Walled Tubes
- Sampling with Thick-Walled Tubes
- Sampling Rock
- In Situ Testing of Soil
- Cone Penetrometer and Piezometer-Cone Penetrometer
- Vane Shear Device
- Pressuremeter
- Boring Report
- Subsurface Investigations for Offshore Structures
- Problems
- Principal Types of Foundations
- Shallow Foundations
- Deep Foundations
- Introduction
- Driven Piles with Impact Hammer
- Drilled Shafts
- Augercast Piles
- GeoJet Piles
- Micropiles
- Caissons
- Hybrid Foundation
- Designing Stable Foundations
- Introduction
- Total and Differential Settlement
- Allowable Settlement of Structures
- Tolerance of Buildings to Settlement
- Exceptional Case of Settlement
- Problems in Proving Settlement
- Soil Investigations Appropriate to Design
- Planning
- Favorable Profiles
- Soils with Special Characteristics
- Calcareous Soil
- Use of Valid Analytical Methods
- Oil Tank in Norway
- Transcona Elevator in Canada
- Bearing Piles in China
- Foundations at Unstable Slopes
- Pendleton Levee
- Fort Peck Dam
- Effects of Installation on the Quality of Deep Foundations
- Introduction
- Effects of Installation of Deep Foundations on Nearby Structures
- Driving Piles
- Effects of Excavations on Nearby Structures
- Deleterious Effects of the Environment on Foundations
- Scour of Soil at Foundations
- Theories of Bearing Capacity and Settlement
- Terzaghi’s Equations for Bearing Capacity
- Revised Equations for Bearing Capacity
- Extended Formulas for Bearing Capacity by J Brinch Hansen
- Eccentricity
- Load Inclination Factors
- Base and Ground Inclination
- Shape Factors
- Depth Effect
- Depth Factors
- General Formulas
- Passive Earth Pressure
- Soil Parameters
- Example Computations
- Equations for Computing Consolidation Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Saturated Clays
- Prediction of Total Settlement Due to Loading of Clay Below the Water Table
- Prediction of Time Rate of Settlement Due to Loading of Clay Below the Water Table
- Problems
- Principles for the Design of Foundations
- Introduction
- Standards of Professional Conduct
- Fundamental Principles
- Fundamental Canons
- Design Team
- Codes and Standards
- Details of the Project
- Factor of Safety
- Selection of a Global Factor of Safety
- Selection of Partial Factors of Safety
- Design Process
- Specifications and Inspection of the Project
- Observation of the Completed Structure
- Geotechnical Design of Shallow Foundations
- Introduction
- Problems with Subsidence
- Designs to Accommodate Construction
- Dewatering During Construction
- Dealing with Nearby Structures
- Shallow Foundations on Sand
- Immediate Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Sand
- Bearing Capacity of Footings on Sand
- Design of Rafts on Sand
- Shallow Foundations on Clay
- Settlement from Consolidation
- Immediate Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Clay
- Design of Shallow Foundations on Clay
- Design of Rafts
- Shallow Foundations Subjected to Vibratory Loading
- Designs in Special Circumstances
- Freezing Weather
- Design of Shallow Foundations on Collapsible Soil
- Design of Shallow Foundations on Expansive Clay
- Design of Shallow Foundations on Layered Soil
- Analysis of a Response of a Strip Footing by Finite Element Method
- Geotechnical Design of Driven Piles Under Axial Loads
- Comment on the Nature of the Problem
- Methods of Computation
- Behavior of Axially Loaded Piles
- Geotechnical Capacity of Axially Loaded Piles
- Basic Equation for Computing the Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity of a Single Pile
- API Methods
- Revised Lambda Method
- U S Army Corps Method
- FHWA Method
- Analyzing the Load–Settlement Relationship of an Axially Loaded Pile
- Methods of Analysis
- Interpretation of Load-Settlement Curves
- Investigation of Results Based on the Proposed Computation Method
- Example Problems
- Skin Friction
- Analysis of Pile Driving
- Dynamic Formulas
- Reasons for the Problems with Dynamic Formulas
- Dynamic Analysis by the Wave Equation
- Effects of Pile Driving
- Effects of Time After Pile Driving with No Load
- Geotechnical Design of Drilled Shafts Under Axial Loading
- Presentation of the FHWA Design Procedure
- Introduction
- Strength and Serviceability Requirements
- General Requirements
- Stability Analysis
- Strength Requirements
- Design Criteria
- Applicability and Deviations
- Loading Conditions
- Allowable Stresses
- General Computations for Axial Capacity of Individual Drilled Shafts
- Design Equations for Axial Capacity in Compression and in Uplift
- Description of Soil and Rock for Axial Capacity Computations
- Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesive Soils
- Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesionless Soils
- Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesive Intermediate Geomaterials and Jointed Rock
- Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesionless Intermediate Geomaterials
- Design for Axial Capacity in Massive Rock
- Addition of Side Resistance and End Bearing in Rock
- Commentary on Design for Axial Capacity in Karst
- Comparison of Results from Theory and Experiment
- Fundamental Concepts Regarding Deep Foundations Under Lateral Loading
- Description of the Problem
- Occurrence of Piles Under Lateral Loading
- Historical Comment
- Derivation of the Differential Equation
- Solution of the Reduced Form of the Differential Equation
- Response of Soil to Lateral Loading
- Effect of the Nature of Loading on the Response of Soil
- Method of Analysis for Introductory Solutions for a Single Pile
- Example Solution Using Nondimensional Charts for Analysis of a Single Pile
- Problems
- Analysis of Individual Deep Foundations Under Axial Loading Using t-z Model
- Short-Term Settlement and Uplift
- Settlement and Uplift Movements
- Basic Equations
- Finite Difference Equations
- Load-Transfer Curves
- Load-Transfer Curves for Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil
- Load-Transfer Curves for End Bearing in Cohesive Soil
- Load-Transfer Curves for Side Resistance in Cohesionless Soil
- Load-Transfer Curves for End Bearing in Cohesionless Soil
- Load-Transfer Curves for Cohesionless Intermediated Geomaterials
- Example Problem
- Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Load-Transfer Versus Movement Curves
- Design for Vertical Ground Movements Due to Downdrag or Expansive Uplift
- Downward Movement Due to Downdrag
- Upward Movement Due to Expansive Uplift
- Analysis and Design By Computer or Piles Subjected to Lateral Loading
- Nature of the Comprehensive Problem
- Differential Equation for a Comprehensive Solution
- Recommendations for p-y Curves for Soil and Rock
- Recommendations for p-y Curves for Clays
- Recommendations for p-y Curves for Sands
- Modifications to p-y Curves for Sloping Ground
- Modifications for Raked (Battered Piles)
- Recommendations for p-y Curves for Rock
- Solution of the Differential Equation by Computer
- Formulation of the Equation by Finite Differences
- Equations for Boundary Conditions for Useful Solutions
- Implementation of Computer Code
- Selection of the Length of the Increment
- Safe Penetration of Pile with No Axial Load
- Buckling of a Pipe Extending Above the Groundline
- Steel Pile Supporting a Retaining Wall
- Drilled Shaft Supporting an Overhead Structure
- Analysis of Pile Groups
- Distribution of Load to Piles in a Group: The Two-Dimensional Problem
- Model of the Problem
- Detailed Step-by-Step Solution Procedure
- Modification of p-y Curves for Battered Piles
- Example Solution Showing Distribution of a Load to Piles in a Two-Dimensional Group
- Solution by Hand Computations
- Efficiency of Piles in Groups Under Lateral Loading
- Modifying Lateral Resistance of Closely Spaced Piles
- Customary Methods of Adjusting Lateral Resistance for Close Spacing
- Adjusting for Close Spacing under Lateral Loading by Modified p-y Curves
- Efficiency of Piles in Groups Under Axial Loading
- Efficiency of Piles in a Group in Cohesionless Soils
- Efficiency of Piles in a Group in Cohesive Soils
- Concluding Comments