Automating Manufacturing Systems with PLCs by Hugh Jack

Automating Manufacturing Systems with PLCs by Hugh Jack

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Contents of Automating Manufacturing Systems

  • PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Ladder Logic
  • Programming
  • PLC Connections
  • Ladder Logic Inputs
  • Ladder Logic Outputs
  • A CASE STUDY
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • PLC HARDWARE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
  • Inputs
  • Output Modules
  • RELAYS
  • A CASE STUDY
  • ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS
  • JIC Wiring Symbols
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • LOGICAL SENSORS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SENSOR WIRING
  • Switches
  • Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
  • Sinking/Sourcing
  • Solid State Relays
  • PRESENCE DETECTION
  • Contact Switches
  • Reed Switches
  • Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors
  • Capacitive Sensors
  • Inductive Sensors
  • Ultrasonic
  • Hall Effect
  • Fluid Flow
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • LOGICAL ACTUATORS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SOLENOIDS
  • VALVES
  • CYLINDERS
  • HYDRAULICS
  • PNEUMATICS
  • MOTORS
  • OTHERS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
  • LOGIC DESIGN
  • Boolean Algebra Techniques
  • COMMON LOGIC FORMS
  • Complex Gate Forms
  • Multiplexers
  • SIMPLE DESIGN CASES
  • Basic Logic Functions
  • Car Safety System
  • Motor Forward/Reverse
  • A Burglar Alarm
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • KARNAUGH MAPS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • PLC OPERATION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OPERATION SEQUENCE
  • The Input and Output Scans
  • The Logic Scan
  • PLC STATUS
  • MEMORY TYPES
  • SOFTWARE BASED PLCS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • LATCHES, TIMERS, COUNTERS AND MORE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LATCHES
  • TIMERS
  • COUNTERS
  • MASTER CONTROL RELAYS (MCRs)
  • INTERNAL BITS
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Basic Counters And Timers
  • More Timers And Counters
  • Deadman Switch
  • Conveyor
  • Accept/Reject Sorting
  • Shear Press
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • STRUCTURED LOGIC DESIGN
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PROCESS SEQUENCE BITS
  • TIMING DIAGRAMS
  • DESIGN CASES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • FLOWCHART BASED DESIGN
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BLOCK LOGIC
  • SEQUENCE BITS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • STATE BASED DESIGN
  • INTRODUCTION
  • State Diagram Example
  • Conversion to Ladder Logic
  • Block Logic Conversion
  • State Equations
  • State-Transition Equations
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • NUMBERS AND DATA
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NUMERICAL VALUES
  • Binary
  • Boolean Operations
  • Binary Mathematics
  • Other Base Number Systems
  • BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)
  • DATA CHARACTERIZATION
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
  • Parity
  • Checksums
  • Gray Code
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • PLC MEMORY
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PROGRAM VS VARIABLE MEMORY
  • PROGRAMS
  • VARIABLES (TAGS)
  • Timer and Counter Memory
  • PLC Status Bits
  • User Function Control Memory
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DATA HANDLING
  • Move Functions
  • Mathematical Functions
  • Conversions
  • Array Data Functions
  • Statistics
  • Block Operations
  • LOGICAL FUNCTIONS
  • Comparison of Values
  • Boolean Functions
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Simple Calculation
  • For-Next
  • Series Calculation
  • Flashing Lights
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LIST FUNCTIONS
  • Shift Registers
  • Stacks
  • Sequencers
  • PROGRAM CONTROL
  • Branching and Looping
  • Fault Handling
  • Interrupts
  • INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
  • Immediate I/O Instructions
  • DESIGN TECHNIQUES
  • State Diagrams
  • DESIGN CASES
  • If-Then
  • Traffic Light
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • OPEN CONTROLLERS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IEC
  • OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE IEC VERSION
  • THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE LANGUAGE
  • Elements of the Language
  • Putting Things Together in a Program
  • AN EXAMPLE
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHARTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • A COMPARISON OF METHODS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CREATING FUNCTION BLOCKS
  • DESIGN CASE
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANALOG INPUTS
  • Analog Inputs With a PLC-
  • ANALOG OUTPUTS
  • Analog Outputs With A PLC-
  • Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Outputs
  • Shielding
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Process Monitor
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • CONTINUOUS SENSORS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INDUSTRIAL SENSORS
  • Angular Displacement
  • Potentiometers
  • Encoders
  • Tachometers
  • Linear Position
  • Potentiometers
  • Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
  • Moire Fringes
  • Accelerometers
  • Forces and Moments
  • Strain Gages
  • Piezoelectric
  • Liquids and Gases
  • Pressure
  • Venturi Valves
  • Coriolis Flow Meter
  • Magnetic Flow Meter
  • Ultrasonic Flow Meter
  • Vortex Flow Meter
  • Positive Displacement Meters
  • Pitot Tubes
  • Temperature
  • Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
  • Thermocouples
  • Thermistors
  • Other Sensors
  • Light
  • Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)
  • Chemical
  • pH
  • Conductivity
  • Others
  • INPUT ISSUES
  • SENSOR GLOSSARY
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ELECTRIC MOTORS
  • Basic Brushed DC Motors
  • AC Motors
  • Brushless DC Motors
  • Stepper Motors
  • Wound Field Motors
  • HYDRAULICS
  • OTHER SYSTEMS
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • CONTINUOUS CONTROL
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
  • CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
  • Block Diagrams
  • Feedback Control Systems
  • Proportional Controllers
  • PID Control Systems
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Oven Temperature Control
  • Water Tank Level Control
  • Position Measurement
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • FUZZY LOGIC
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS
  • REFERENCES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • SERIAL COMMUNICATION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
  • RS-
  • ASCII Functions
  • PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS
  • DESIGN CASES
  • PLC Interface To a Robot
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • NETWORKING
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Topology
  • OSI Network Model
  • Networking Hardware
  • Control Network Issues
  • NETWORK STANDARDS
  • PROPRIETARY NETWORKS
  • Data Highway
  • NETWORK COMPARISONS
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Devicenet
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • INTERNET
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Computer Addresses
  • IPV
  • Phone Lines
  • Mail Transfer Protocols
  • FTP – File Transfer Protocol
  • HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  • Novell
  • Security
  • Firewall
  • IP Masquerading
  • HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language
  • URLs
  • Encryption
  • Compression
  • Clients and Servers
  • Java
  • Javascript
  • CGI
  • ActiveX
  • Graphics
  • DESIGN CASES
  • Remote Monitoring System
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACES (HMI)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HMI/MMI DESIGN
  • DESIGN CASES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • ELECTRICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS
  • Selecting Voltages
  • Grounding
  • Wiring
  • Suppressors
  • PLC Enclosures
  • Wire and Cable Grouping
  • FAIL-SAFE DESIGN
  • SAFETY RULES SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Fail Safe Design
  • DEBUGGING
  • Troubleshooting
  • Forcing
  • PROCESS MODELLING
  • PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS
  • Developing a Program Structure
  • Program Verification and Simulation
  • DOCUMENTATION
  • COMMISIONING
  • SAFETY
  • IEC / safety standards
  • LEAN MANUFACTURING
  • REFERENCES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • SELECTING A PLC
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIAL I/O MODULES
  • SUMMARY
  • PRACTICE PROBLEMS
  • PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
  • ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
  • FUNCTION REFERENCE
  • FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
  • General Functions
  • Program Control
  • Timers and Counters
  • Compare
  • Calculation and Conversion
  • Logical
  • Move
  • File
  • List
  • Program Control
  • Advanced Input/Output
  • String

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