**Building Heat Transfer by Morris Grenfell Davies**

## Contents of Building Heat Transfer

- Elementary Steady-State Heat Transfer
- Human Thermal Comfort
- Ambient Temperature
- Design Temperature
- Degree-Day Value
- The Traditional Building Heating Model
- Ventilation Loss
- Conduction Loss
- Loss from a Cylinder
- Seasonal Heat Need
- Plan of the Book
- Physical Constants of Materials
- Thermal Parameters for Gases: Kinetic Theory
- Representative Values for Solids
- Discussion
- Appendix: The Maxwellian Distribution
- Conduction-Dominated Systems
- Heat Flow along a Fin
- Heat Loss from a Solid Floor
- One-Dimensional Heat Loss
- Two-Dimensional Heat Loss
- Three-Dimensional Heat Loss
- Discussion of Floor Losses
- Placement of Insulation
- Heat Flow through Corners
- Solution using the Schwarz–Christoffel Transformation
- Appendix: Systems of Orthogonal Circles
- Thermal Circuit Theory
- Basic Thermal Elements
- Reference Temperature
- Temperature Node
- Pure Temperature Source
- Pure Heat Source
- Conductance
- Switch
- Quasi Heat Source
- Quasi Temperature Source
- The Heat Continuity Equation in an Enclosure
- The Mesh Approach
- The Nodal Approach
- Examples
- The Ventilated Cavity
- A Basic Circuit for Thermal Response
- Circuit Transforms
- Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ´
- Delta-Star Transformation
- Series-Parallel Transformation
- Heat Transfer by Air Movement
- Laminar and Turbulent Flow
- Natural Convection: Dimensional Approach
- Vertical Surface
- Inclined Surface
- Horizontal Surface
- Natural Convection at a Vertical Surface: Analytical Approach
- Heat Transfer through a Laminar Boundary Layer
- Discussion of the Laminar Flow Solution
- Heat Transfer through a Vertical Turbulent Boundary Layer
- Natural Convection between Parallel Surfaces
- Convective Exchange at Room Surfaces
- Convective Exchange through an Aperture between Rooms
- Heat Exchange at an External Surface
- Heat Transfer by Radiation
- The Fourth-Power Law
- Emissivity, Absorptivity and Reflectivity
- Radiation View Factors
- Basic Expression for View Factors
- Examples of View Factors
- View Factors by Contour Integration
- Direct Radiant Exchange between Surfaces
- Assumptions for Radiant Exchange
- The Thermal Circuit Formulation
- Radiant Exchange in an Enclosure
- Net Conductance
- Optimal Star Links
- How Good is the Delta-Star Transformation?
- Discussion
- Linearisation of the Driving Potentials
- Inclusion of the Emissivity Conductance
- Space-Averaged Observable Radiant Temperature
- Space-averaged Observable Temperature due to an Internal
- Radiant Source
- Space-averaged Observable Radiant Temperature due to
- Bounding Surfaces
- Star-Based Model for Radiant Exchange in a Room
- Representation of Radiant Exchange by Surface-Surface Links
- Long-Wave Radiant Exchange at Building Exterior Surfaces
- Appendix: Conductance between Rectangles on Perpendicular and
- Parallel Surfaces
- Design Model for Steady-State Room Heat Exchange
- A Model Enclosure
- The Rad-Air Model for Enclosure Heat Flows
- Problems in Modelling Room Heat Exchange
- The Environmental Temperature Model
- The Invalidity of Environmental Temperature
- Flaws in the Argument
- What is Mean Radiant Temperature?
- Moisture Movement in Rooms
- Vapour Loss by Ventilation
- Vapour Resistivity
- Vapour Loss by Diffusion through Porous Walls
- Condensation on a Surface
- Condensation in a Wall: Simple Model
- Condensation in a Wall: More Detailed Models
- Condensation in Glass Fibre
- The Sorption Characteristic for Capillary-Porous Materials
- Moisture Movement in Capillary-Porous Materials
- Appendix: The Saturated Vapour Pressure Relation
- Appendix: Saturated Vapour Pressure over a Curved Surface
- Appendix: Measures of the Driving Potential for Water Vapour Transport
- Appendix: Mould Growth in Antiquity
- Solar Heating
- Factors Affecting Radiation Reaching the Earth
- Earth’s Orbit and Rotation
- The Sun’s Altitude and Azimuth
- Intensity of Radiation
- Solar Incidence on Glazing
- The Steady-State Solar Gain Factor
- Solar Gain Contribution to Heat Need
- The Wall with Lumped Elements
- Modelling Capacity
- Forms of Response for a Single-Capacity Circuit
- The r-c Circuit
- The r-c-r Circuit: Ramp Solution
- The r-c-r Circuit: Periodic Solution
- The Two-Capacity Wall
- Wall Decay Times
- Unit Flux Temperatures
- The Orthogonality Theorem and the Transient Solution
- Step and Steady-Slope Solutions
- Ramp Solution
- Examples
- Finite Difference Method
- Subdivision of the Wall
- Computational Formulae
- Discussion
- Evaluation of Complex Quantities
- The Electrical Analogue
- Time-Varying Elements
- Wall Conduction Transfer Coefficients for a Discretised System
- The Response Factors φ ,k
- The d Coefficients
- The Transfer Coefficients b ,k
- The Response Factors φ ,k, φ ,k and Transfer Coefficients a, c
- Simple Cases
- Heat Stored in the Steady State
- The Fourier Continuity Equation in One Dimension
- Progressive Solutions
- Space/Time-Independent Solutions
- The Transient Solution
- The Periodic Solution
- The Source Solution and its Family
- Further Source-Based Solutions
- Solutions for the Temperature Profile and Taylor’s Series
- Transform Methods
- Use of the Solutions
- Appendix: Penetration of a Signal into an Infinite Slab
- Analytical Transient Models for Step Excitation
- Slab without Films
- Cooling at the Surface
- Cooling at the Midplane
- The Film and Slab, Adiabatic at Rear: Groeber’s Model
- Solution
- Limiting Forms
- Early and Late Stages of Cooling at the Surface
- Cooling Curves: Exposed Surface
- Surface Response Time
- Cooling at the Midplane
- Discussion
- Jaeger’s Model
- Pratt’s Model
- A One-Dimensional System cannot have Two Equal Decay Times
- Discussion
- Simple Models for Room Response
- Wall Time Constant Models
- Enclosure Response Time Models
- Response Time by Analysis
- Response Time by Computation
- Response Time by Observation
- Response Time and HVAC Time Delays
- Models with Few Capacities
- One-Capacity Wall Models
- One-Capacity Enclosure Models
- Enclosure Models with Two or More Capacities
- Discussion
- Wall Parameters for Periodic Excitation
- The Finite-Thickness Slab
- The Slab with Films
- Thermal Parameters for an External Multilayer Wall
- Admittance of an Internal Wall
- Discussion
- An Exact Circuit Model for a Wall
- Optimal Three-Capacity Modelling of a Slab
- Appendix: Complex Quantities and Vector Representation
- Frequency-Domain Models for Room Response
- Basic Principles
- Hour Periodicity: Admittance Model
- Submultiples of Hours
- Further Developments
- Periodic Response for a Floor Slab
- Wall Conduction Transfer Coefficients for a Layered System
- The Single Slab
- Slope Response for a Multilayer Wall
- Transient Solution for a Multilayer Wall
- The Orthogonality Theorem
- Heat Flows in a Multilayer Wall
- Same-Side and Cross Excitation
- Transfer Coefficients
- Response Factors and Transfer Coefficients for an Example Wall
- Two-Layer Wall
- Wall with Resistances
- Discussion
- Derivations from Transfer Coefficients
- Wall Thermal Capacity
- Transfer Coefficients and Measures for Daily Sinusoidal
- Excitation
- Transfer Coefficients, Decay Times and Time of Peak Flow
- Transfer Coefficients with and without Film Coefficients
- Summary of Modelling Parameters
- The Equivalent Discretised Wall
- Error and Wall Thickness
- The Two-Capacity Homogeneous Wall
- The Real Wall is Discretised
- The Homogeneous Wall
- Wall Modelling
- Time- and Frequency-Domain Methods Compared
- Appendix: Finding the Decay Times
- Appendix: Inclusion of Moisture Movement
- Accuracy of Temperature Estimates Using Transfer Coefficients
- The r-c Model
- The Single Slab Driven by a Ramp
- The Single Slab Driven by a Flux
- The Single Slab Driven Sinusoidally
- Film and Slab Driven by a Ramp
- Film and Slab as Separate Entities
- Film and Slab as a Combined Entity
- The General Wall
- Discussion
- Room Thermal Response Using Transfer Coefficients
- Simplifying Assumptions
- A Basic Enclosure
- An Example Enclosure
- Internal Heat Transfer
- Heat Flow through the Walls
- Thermal Response to Ambient Temperature and Heat Input
- The Continuity Equations
- Response of the Enclosure
- Heating or Cooling when Comfort Temperature is Specified
- Development of the Model
- Infiltration between Adjacent Rooms