Building Heat Transfer by Morris Davies

Building Heat Transfer by Morris Davies

Building Heat Transfer by Morris Grenfell Davies

Contents of Building Heat Transfer

  • Elementary Steady-State Heat Transfer
  • Human Thermal Comfort
  • Ambient Temperature
  • Design Temperature
  • Degree-Day Value
  • The Traditional Building Heating Model
  • Ventilation Loss
  • Conduction Loss
  • Loss from a Cylinder
  • Seasonal Heat Need
  • Plan of the Book
  • Physical Constants of Materials
  • Thermal Parameters for Gases: Kinetic Theory
  • Representative Values for Solids
  • Discussion
  • Appendix: The Maxwellian Distribution
  • Conduction-Dominated Systems
  • Heat Flow along a Fin
  • Heat Loss from a Solid Floor
  • One-Dimensional Heat Loss
  • Two-Dimensional Heat Loss
  • Three-Dimensional Heat Loss
  • Discussion of Floor Losses
  • Placement of Insulation
  • Heat Flow through Corners
  • Solution using the Schwarz–Christoffel Transformation
  • Appendix: Systems of Orthogonal Circles
  • Thermal Circuit Theory
  • Basic Thermal Elements
  • Reference Temperature
  • Temperature Node
  • Pure Temperature Source
  • Pure Heat Source
  • Conductance
  • Switch
  • Quasi Heat Source
  • Quasi Temperature Source
  • The Heat Continuity Equation in an Enclosure
  • The Mesh Approach
  • The Nodal Approach
  • Examples
  • The Ventilated Cavity
  • A Basic Circuit for Thermal Response
  • Circuit Transforms
  • Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ´
  • Delta-Star Transformation
  • Series-Parallel Transformation
  • Heat Transfer by Air Movement
  • Laminar and Turbulent Flow
  • Natural Convection: Dimensional Approach
  • Vertical Surface
  • Inclined Surface
  • Horizontal Surface
  • Natural Convection at a Vertical Surface: Analytical Approach
  • Heat Transfer through a Laminar Boundary Layer
  • Discussion of the Laminar Flow Solution
  • Heat Transfer through a Vertical Turbulent Boundary Layer
  • Natural Convection between Parallel Surfaces
  • Convective Exchange at Room Surfaces
  • Convective Exchange through an Aperture between Rooms
  • Heat Exchange at an External Surface
  • Heat Transfer by Radiation
  • The Fourth-Power Law
  • Emissivity, Absorptivity and Reflectivity
  • Radiation View Factors
  • Basic Expression for View Factors
  • Examples of View Factors
  • View Factors by Contour Integration
  • Direct Radiant Exchange between Surfaces
  • Assumptions for Radiant Exchange
  • The Thermal Circuit Formulation
  • Radiant Exchange in an Enclosure
  • Net Conductance
  • Optimal Star Links
  • How Good is the Delta-Star Transformation?
  • Discussion
  • Linearisation of the Driving Potentials
  • Inclusion of the Emissivity Conductance
  • Space-Averaged Observable Radiant Temperature
  • Space-averaged Observable Temperature due to an Internal
  • Radiant Source
  • Space-averaged Observable Radiant Temperature due to
  • Bounding Surfaces
  • Star-Based Model for Radiant Exchange in a Room
  • Representation of Radiant Exchange by Surface-Surface Links
  • Long-Wave Radiant Exchange at Building Exterior Surfaces
  • Appendix: Conductance between Rectangles on Perpendicular and
  • Parallel Surfaces
  • Design Model for Steady-State Room Heat Exchange
  • A Model Enclosure
  • The Rad-Air Model for Enclosure Heat Flows
  • Problems in Modelling Room Heat Exchange
  • The Environmental Temperature Model
  • The Invalidity of Environmental Temperature
  • Flaws in the Argument
  • What is Mean Radiant Temperature?
  • Moisture Movement in Rooms
  • Vapour Loss by Ventilation
  • Vapour Resistivity
  • Vapour Loss by Diffusion through Porous Walls
  • Condensation on a Surface
  • Condensation in a Wall: Simple Model
  • Condensation in a Wall: More Detailed Models
  • Condensation in Glass Fibre
  • The Sorption Characteristic for Capillary-Porous Materials
  • Moisture Movement in Capillary-Porous Materials
  • Appendix: The Saturated Vapour Pressure Relation
  • Appendix: Saturated Vapour Pressure over a Curved Surface
  • Appendix: Measures of the Driving Potential for Water Vapour Transport
  • Appendix: Mould Growth in Antiquity
  • Solar Heating
  • Factors Affecting Radiation Reaching the Earth
  • Earth’s Orbit and Rotation
  • The Sun’s Altitude and Azimuth
  • Intensity of Radiation
  • Solar Incidence on Glazing
  • The Steady-State Solar Gain Factor
  • Solar Gain Contribution to Heat Need
  • The Wall with Lumped Elements
  • Modelling Capacity
  • Forms of Response for a Single-Capacity Circuit
  • The r-c Circuit
  • The r-c-r Circuit: Ramp Solution
  • The r-c-r Circuit: Periodic Solution
  • The Two-Capacity Wall
  • Wall Decay Times
  • Unit Flux Temperatures
  • The Orthogonality Theorem and the Transient Solution
  • Step and Steady-Slope Solutions
  • Ramp Solution
  • Examples
  • Finite Difference Method
  • Subdivision of the Wall
  • Computational Formulae
  • Discussion
  • Evaluation of Complex Quantities
  • The Electrical Analogue
  • Time-Varying Elements
  • Wall Conduction Transfer Coefficients for a Discretised System
  • The Response Factors φ ,k
  • The d Coefficients
  • The Transfer Coefficients b ,k
  • The Response Factors φ ,k, φ ,k and Transfer Coefficients a, c
  • Simple Cases
  • Heat Stored in the Steady State
  • The Fourier Continuity Equation in One Dimension
  • Progressive Solutions
  • Space/Time-Independent Solutions
  • The Transient Solution
  • The Periodic Solution
  • The Source Solution and its Family
  • Further Source-Based Solutions
  • Solutions for the Temperature Profile and Taylor’s Series
  • Transform Methods
  • Use of the Solutions
  • Appendix: Penetration of a Signal into an Infinite Slab
  • Analytical Transient Models for Step Excitation
  • Slab without Films
  • Cooling at the Surface
  • Cooling at the Midplane
  • The Film and Slab, Adiabatic at Rear: Groeber’s Model
  • Solution
  • Limiting Forms
  • Early and Late Stages of Cooling at the Surface
  • Cooling Curves: Exposed Surface
  • Surface Response Time
  • Cooling at the Midplane
  • Discussion
  • Jaeger’s Model
  • Pratt’s Model
  • A One-Dimensional System cannot have Two Equal Decay Times
  • Discussion
  • Simple Models for Room Response
  • Wall Time Constant Models
  • Enclosure Response Time Models
  • Response Time by Analysis
  • Response Time by Computation
  • Response Time by Observation
  • Response Time and HVAC Time Delays
  • Models with Few Capacities
  • One-Capacity Wall Models
  • One-Capacity Enclosure Models
  • Enclosure Models with Two or More Capacities
  • Discussion
  • Wall Parameters for Periodic Excitation
  • The Finite-Thickness Slab
  • The Slab with Films
  • Thermal Parameters for an External Multilayer Wall
  • Admittance of an Internal Wall
  • Discussion
  • An Exact Circuit Model for a Wall
  • Optimal Three-Capacity Modelling of a Slab
  • Appendix: Complex Quantities and Vector Representation
  • Frequency-Domain Models for Room Response
  • Basic Principles
  • Hour Periodicity: Admittance Model
  • Submultiples of Hours
  • Further Developments
  • Periodic Response for a Floor Slab
  • Wall Conduction Transfer Coefficients for a Layered System
  • The Single Slab
  • Slope Response for a Multilayer Wall
  • Transient Solution for a Multilayer Wall
  • The Orthogonality Theorem
  • Heat Flows in a Multilayer Wall
  • Same-Side and Cross Excitation
  • Transfer Coefficients
  • Response Factors and Transfer Coefficients for an Example Wall
  • Two-Layer Wall
  • Wall with Resistances
  • Discussion
  • Derivations from Transfer Coefficients
  • Wall Thermal Capacity
  • Transfer Coefficients and Measures for Daily Sinusoidal
  • Excitation
  • Transfer Coefficients, Decay Times and Time of Peak Flow
  • Transfer Coefficients with and without Film Coefficients
  • Summary of Modelling Parameters
  • The Equivalent Discretised Wall
  • Error and Wall Thickness
  • The Two-Capacity Homogeneous Wall
  • The Real Wall is Discretised
  • The Homogeneous Wall
  • Wall Modelling
  • Time- and Frequency-Domain Methods Compared
  • Appendix: Finding the Decay Times
  • Appendix: Inclusion of Moisture Movement
  • Accuracy of Temperature Estimates Using Transfer Coefficients
  • The r-c Model
  • The Single Slab Driven by a Ramp
  • The Single Slab Driven by a Flux
  • The Single Slab Driven Sinusoidally
  • Film and Slab Driven by a Ramp
  • Film and Slab as Separate Entities
  • Film and Slab as a Combined Entity
  • The General Wall
  • Discussion
  • Room Thermal Response Using Transfer Coefficients
  • Simplifying Assumptions
  • A Basic Enclosure
  • An Example Enclosure
  • Internal Heat Transfer
  • Heat Flow through the Walls
  • Thermal Response to Ambient Temperature and Heat Input
  • The Continuity Equations
  • Response of the Enclosure
  • Heating or Cooling when Comfort Temperature is Specified
  • Development of the Model
  • Infiltration between Adjacent Rooms

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