Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials

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Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials

PDF Free Download | Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials by Joseph M. Steigerwald, Shyam P. Murarka, and Ronald J. Gutmann

Contents of Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials

  • Chemical Mechanical Planarbation-An Introduction
  • Introduction
  • Applications
  • The CMP Process
  • CMPTools
  • Process Integration
  • Conclusion and Book Outline
  • References
  • Historical Motivations for CMP
  • Advanced Metallization Schemes
  • Interconnect Delay Impact on Performance
  • Methods of Reducing Interconnect Delay
  • Planarity Requirements for Multilevel
  • Metallization
  • Planarization Schemes
  • Smoothing and Local Planarization
  • Global Planarization
  • CMP Planarization
  • Advantages of CMP
  • Disadvantages of CMP
  • The Challenge of CMP
  • References
  • CMP Variables and Manipulations
  • Output Variables
  • Input Variables
  • References
  • Mechanical and Electrochemical Concepts for CMP
  • Preston Equation
  • Fluid Layer Interactions
  • Boundary Layer Interactions
  • Fluid Boundary Layer
  • Double Layer
  • Metal Surface Films
  • Mechanical Abrasion
  • Polishing vs Grinding
  • Hertzian Indentation vs Fluid-Based Wear
  • Abrasion Modes
  • The Polishing Pad
  • Pad Materials and Properties
  • Pad Conditioning
  • Reduction-Oxidation Reactions
  • Pourbaix Diagrams
  • Mixed Potential Theory
  • Example: Copper CMP in NH -Based Slurries
  • Example: Copper-Titanium Interaction
  • Role of Chemistry in CMP
  • Electrochemical Phenomena
  • Abrasives
  • References
  • Oxide CMP Processes-Mechanisms and Models
  • The Role of Chemistry in Oxide Polishing
  • Glass Polishing Mechanisms
  • The Role of Water in Oxide Polishing
  • Chemical Interactions Between Abrasive and
  • Oxide Surface
  • Oxide CMP in Practice
  • Polish Rate Results
  • Planarkation Results
  • CMP in Manufacturing
  • Yield Issues
  • summary
  • References
  • Tungsten and CMP Processes
  • Inlaid Metal Patterning
  • I RIE Etch Back
  • Metal CMP
  • Tungsten CMP Processes
  • Summary
  • References
  • Tungsten CMP
  • Surface Passivation Model for Tungsten CMP
  • CopperCMP
  • Proposed Model for Copper CMP
  • Surface Layer Formation-Planarkation
  • Formation of Native Surface Films
  • Formation of Nonnative Cu-BTA Surface Film
  • Material Dissolution
  • Removal of Abraded Material
  • Increasing Solubility with Complexing Agent
  • Increasing Dissolution Rate with Oxidizing
  • Agents
  • Chemical Aspect of the Copper CMP Model
  • Preston Coefficient
  • Polish Rates
  • Comparison of Kp Values
  • Preston Equation
  • Polish-Induced Stress
  • Pattern Geometry Effects
  • Dishing and Erosion in CdSiO, System
  • Optimization of Process to Minimize Dishing
  • and Erosion
  • Summary
  • References
  • CMP of Other Materials and New CMP Applications
  • The Front-End Applications in Silicon IC Fabrication
  • Shallow Trench Isolation
  • CMP of Polysilicon Films
  • CMP of Photoresists
  • Planarizing A and A Alloys
  • Planarization of Diffusion BarrierslAdhesion
  • Promoters
  • CMP of Advanced Interlevel Dielectric Materials:
  • Polymers
  • Polymer CMP
  • Inlaid Metal CMP with Polymer ILDs

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