**Control of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures by Francis Barre, Philippe Bisch, Danièle Chauvel, Jacques Cortade, Jean-François Coste, Jean-Philippe Dubois, Silvano Erlicher, Etienne Gallitre, Pierre Labbé, Jacky Mazars, Claude Rospars, Alain Sellier, Jean-Michel Torrenti, and François Toutlemonde**

Contents of Control of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures

**Chapter 1. CEOS fr Project Presentation**- CEOS fr work program
- Testing
- Tests on prismatic full-scale blocks
- Tests on scale beams
- Tests on scale shear walls
- Tests on ties
- Modeling and simulation
- MEFISTO research program
- Benchmarks and workshops
- Numerical experiments
- Engineering
- Database and specimen storage
- Database CHEOPS
- Specimen storage (Renardières site)
**Chapter 2. Hydration Effects of Concrete at**- an Early Age and the Scale Effect
- Hydration effects of concrete at an early age
- Global heating and cooling of a concrete element
- Control of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Differential temperature between
- concrete core and surface
- Scale effect
- Scale effect principle
- Calculating scale effect according to Weibull theory
- Worked examples of calculation with the scale effect according to the Weibull model
- Application of Weibull integral in bending and in tension
**Chapter 3. Cracking of Ties**- Design values and limit values
- Adjusting the design value for verification purposes
- Crack spacing equation
- Linear equation
- Relationship between the maximum spacing
- Equation based on the MC bond-slip
- relationship
- Equation for the mean differential strain
- Model accuracy when calculating the strain and crack width
- Example of the application of the cracking equations to a concrete tie in tension
**Chapter 4. Cracking of Beams Under**- Mechanical Flexural Loading
- Crack spacing
- Crack width
- Tensile stress–strain curve
- Calculating the crack width from the relative strain
- Calculating the crack width by interpolation
- between uncracked and fully cracked conditions (the ζ method)
- Examples
- Example : calculation of crack spacing and
- crack width in a thick concrete slab under heavy loads
- Example : calculation of crack spacing and crack width in a double thick beam
**Chapter 5. Cracking in Walls**- Current status of the reference texts
- Validity of the physical model and calculating of the crack angle
- Calculation model
- Crack spacing and slippage length
- Mean differential strain
- Calculating the crack width from reinforcing bar strains
- Calculating the crack width in accordance with the strut and tie model
- Recommendations for evaluating the cracking in walls subject to earthquake situations
- Examples of application of cracking equations in a wall subjected to a shear stress in the plane of the wall
**Chapter 6. Minimum Reinforcement of**- Thick Concrete Elements
- Reinforcement of reinforced concrete ties
- Detailed calculation from a D approach
- Simplified methodology for calculating concrete reinforcement
- Reinforcement of prestressed concrete ties
- Crack formation in an element in tension
- Stabilized cracking stage in an element in tension
- Reinforcement of beams
- Beams under monotonic mechanical loading
- Beams under imposed deformation and monotonic mechanical loading
- Reinforcement of walls
- Walls without specific requirements for cracking
- Walls with specific requirements for cracking
**Chapter 7. Shrinkage, Creep and Other Concrete Properties**- Introduction
- Strain
- Definition
- Control of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Range of applicability
- Initial strain at loading
- Shrinkage
- Autogenous shrinkage
- Drying shrinkage
- Creep
- Assumptions and related basic equation
- Basic creep
- Drying creep
- Experimental identification procedures
- Initial strain at loading time
- Shrinkage
- Basic creep
- Drying creep
- Estimation of long-term delayed strain
- Temperature effects on concrete properties
- Temperature effects on instantaneous
- concrete characteristics
- Maturity
- Thermal expansion
- Compressive strength
- Tensile strength
- Fracture energy
- Elasticity modulus
- Temperature effects on the delayed deformations
- Autogenous shrinkage
- Drying shrinkage
**Chapter 8. Cracking of Beams and Walls Subject to Restrained Deformations at SLS**- Evaluation of shrinkage with bulk heating and cooling of concrete
- Estimating and limiting crack widths
- Estimating restraints at SLS
- Approximate calculation of external restraint
- Detailed calculation of a restraint on a wall
- Estimation of stiffness
- General comments
- Simplified method
- Principles of the detailed method
- Worked example of a massive element thermal gradient
**Chapter 9. Effects of Various Phenomena in Combination**- Estimating crack width
- Combining effects due to imposed deformations and deformations resulting from in-service loadings
- Structures with water or air tightness requirements
- Structures with durability requirements
- Minimum reinforcement
**Chapter 10. Numerical Modeling: a Methodological Approach**- Scope
- Methodology
- Thermal and hydration effects
- Drying
- Mechanics
- Hydration
- Permanent basic creep
- Reversible basic creep
- Influence of temperature on the creep velocity
- Shrinkage
- Drying creep
- Steel-concrete composite modeling
- Statistical scale effect
- Example simulation
- Thermal and hydration simulation
**Chapter 11. Recommendations for the use of Measurements on Mock-up Test Facilities and Structures**- General methodology of the measurements
- Preliminary general approach
- Selection and choice of measuring devices
- Method of measurement selection
- Measurement data-mining and analysis
- Mock-up measurements
- Measurement of parameters
- Data acquisition and storage
- Measurement of structures
- Preliminary measurements
- Parameters to be measured
- Equipment of the measurements
- Formwork
- Control of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Example of measurement instrumentation on massive structures
- Example of mock-up test instrumentation