Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Prevention, Diagnosis and Repair

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Prevention, Diagnosis and Repair

PDF Free Download | Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Prevention, Diagnosis, and Repair by Luca Bertolini, Bernhard Elsener, Pietro Pedeferri, and Rob B. Polder

Contents of Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

  • Part 1. Properties of Cementitious Materials
  • Cements and Cement Paste
  • Cement Types and Hydration Reaction
  • Porosity and Transport Processes
  • Water/cement Ratio and Curing
  • Porosity, Permeability and Percolation
  • Blended Cements
  • Pozzolanic Materials
  • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
  • Properties of Blended Cements
  • Common Cements
  • Other Types of Cement
  • Transport Processes in Concrete
  • Composition of Pore Solution and Water Content
  • Composition of Pore Solution
  • Water in Concrete
  • Water Content and Transport Processes
  • Diffusion
  • Stationary Diffusion
  • Non-stationary Diffusion
  • Diffusion and Binding
  • Capillary Suction
  • Permeation
  • Water Permeability Coefficient
  • Gas Permeability Coefficient
  • Migration
  • Corrosion of Steel in Concrete
  • Ion Transport in Solution
  • Ion Transport in Concrete
  • Resistivity of Concrete
  • Mechanisms and Significant Parameters
  • Degradation of Concrete
  • Freeze-thaw Attack
  • Mechanism
  • Factors Influencing Frost Resistance
  • Air-entrained Concrete
  • Attack by Acids and Pure Water
  • Acid Attack
  • Biogenic Sulfuric Acid Attack
  • Attack by Pure Water
  • Ammonium Attack
  • Sulfate Attack
  • Mechanism
  • Protection
  • Alkali Silica Reaction
  • Alkali Content in Cement and Pore Solution
  • Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR)
  • Attack by Seawater
  • Part 2. Mechanisms of Corrosion
  • General Aspects
  • Initiation and Propagation of Corrosion
  • Initiation Phase
  • Propagation Phase
  • Corrosion Rate
  • Consequences
  • Behaviour of Other Metals
  • Carbonation-induced Corrosion
  • Carbonation of Concrete
  • Penetration of Carbonation
  • Factors that Influence the Carbonation Rate
  • Initiation Time
  • Parabolic Formula
  • Other Formulas
  • Corrosion Rate
  • Carbonated and Chloride-contaminated Concrete
  • Chloride-induced Corrosion
  • Pitting Corrosion
  • Corrosion Initiation
  • Chloride Threshold
  • Chloride Penetration
  • Surface Content (Cs)
  • Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
  • Corrosion Rate
  • Electrochemical Aspects
  • Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion
  • Non-carbonated Concrete without Chlorides
  • Anodic Polarization Curve
  • Cathodic Polarization Curve
  • Corrosion Conditions
  • Carbonated Concrete
  • Concrete Containing Chlorides
  • Corrosion Initiation and Pitting Potential
  • Propagation
  • Repassivation
  • Structures Cathodically or Anodically Polarized
  • Macrocells
  • Structures Exposed to the Atmosphere
  • Buried Structures and Immersed Structures
  • Electrochemical Aspects
  • Stray-current-induced Corrosion
  • DC Stray Current
  • Alkaline and Chloride-free Concrete
  • Passive Steel in Chloride-contaminated Concrete
  • Corroding Steel
  • AC Stray Current
  • High-strength Steel
  • Inspection
  • Protection from Stray Current
  • Hydrogen-induced Stress-corrosion Cracking
  • Stress-corrosion Cracking (SCC)
  • Failure under Service of High-strength Steel
  • Crack Initiation
  • Crack Propagation
  • Fast Propagation
  • Critical Conditions
  • Fracture Surface
  • Metallurgical, Mechanical and Load Conditions
  • Susceptibility of Steel to HI-SCC
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Hydrogen Generated During Operation
  • Hydrogen Generated before Ducts are Filled
  • Part 3. Prevention
  • Design for Durability
  • Conditions of Aggressiveness
  • Concrete Quality
  • Cracks
  • Thickness of the Concrete Cover
  • Service-life Modelling and Refined Methods for Service-life Design
  • Evaluation of the Service Life with Respect to Carbonation
  • Evaluation of the Service Life with Respect to Chloride Penetration
  • Performance-based Service-life Design According to DuraCrete
  • Initiation Time for Carbonation-induced Corrosion
  • Propagation Time for Carbonation- (and Chloride)-induced Corrosion
  • Initiation Time for Marine Structures
  • Design Equation for Chloride-induced Corrosion Initiation
  • Tabulated Values
  • Safety Factors
  • Calculation and Results
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Additional Protection Measures
  • Preventative Measures in the Presence of Chlorides
  • Concrete Technology for Corrosion Prevention
  • Constituents of Concrete
  • Cement
  • Aggregates
  • Mixing Water
  • Admixtures
  • Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete
  • Workability
  • Strength
  • Deformation
  • Shrinkage and Cracking
  • Mix Design
  • Concrete Manufacturing
  • Mixing, Handling, Placement, and Compaction
  • Curing
  • Design Details
  • Concrete with Special Properties
  • Concrete with Mineral Additions
  • High-performance Concrete (HPC)
  • Self-compacting Concrete (SCC)
  • Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Mechanism of Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Mode of Action of Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Corrosion Inhibitors to Prevent or Delay Corrosion Initiation
  • Corrosion Inhibitors to Reduce the Propagation Rate of Corrosion
  • Transport of the Inhibitor into Mortar or Concrete
  • Field Tests and Experience with Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Critical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Effectiveness of Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Surface Treatments
  • General Remarks
  • Organic Coatings
  • Properties and Testing
  • Performance
  • Hydrophobic Treatment
  • Properties and Testing
  • Performance
  • Treatments that Block Pores
  • Cementitious Coatings and Layers
  • Concluding Remarks on Effectiveness and Durability of
  • Surface Treatments
  • Corrosion-resistant Reinforcement
  • Steels for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
  • Reinforcing Bars
  • Prestressing Steel
  • Corrosion Behaviour
  • Stainless-Steel Rebars
  • Properties of Stainless-Steel Rebars
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Coupling with Carbon Steel
  • Applications and Cost
  • Galvanized-Steel Rebars
  • Properties of Galvanized-steel bars
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Epoxy-coated Rebars
  • Properties of the Coating
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Contents XV
  • Practical Aspects
  • Effectiveness
  • Part 4. Diagnosis
  • Inspection and Condition Assessment
  • Visual Inspection and Cover Depth
  • Electrochemical Inspection Techniques
  • Half-cell Potential Mapping
  • Resistivity Measurements
  • Corrosion Rate
  • Chemical Analysis of Concrete
  • Carbonation Depth
  • Chloride Determination
  • Monitoring
  • Introduction
  • Monitoring with Non-electrochemical Sensors
  • Monitoring with Electrochemical Sensors
  • Critical Factors
  • On the Way to “Smart Structures”
  • Part 5. Repair
  • Principles and Methods for Repair
  • Repair Options
  • Basic Repair Principles
  • Repair Methods for Carbonated Structures
  • Repassivation
  • Reduction of the Moisture Content of the Concrete
  • Coating of the Reinforcement
  • Repair Methods for Chloride-contaminated Structures
  • Repassivation
  • Cathodic Protection
  • Other Methods
  • Conventional Repair
  • Assessment of the Condition of the Structure
  • Removal of Concrete
  • Definition of Concrete to be Removed
  • Techniques for Concrete Removal
  • Surface Preparation
  • Preparation of Reinforcement
  • Application of Repair Material
  • Requirements
  • Repair Materials
  • Specifications and Tests
  • Additional Protection
  • Strengthening
  • Electrochemical Techniques
  • Development of the Techniques
  • Cathodic Protection
  • Cathodic Prevention
  • Electrochemical Chloride Removal
  • Electrochemical Realkalization
  • Effects of the Circulation of Current
  • Beneficial Effects
  • Side Effects
  • How Various Techniques Work
  • Cathodic Protection and Cathodic Prevention
  • Cathodic Protection of Steel in Chloride-contaminated Concrete
  • Cathodic Prevention
  • Cathodic Protection in Carbonated Concrete
  • Throwing Power
  • The Anode System
  • Practical Aspects
  • Electrochemical Chloride Extraction and Realkalisation
  • Electrochemical Chloride Extraction
  • Electrochemical Realkalisation
  • Practical Aspects
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