Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations by P. C. Varghese

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Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations by Varghese

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Contents of Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations

  • Foundation Structures
  • Introduction
  • Rigid and Flexible Foundations
  • Loads and their Effects
  • Design Requirements
  • Geotechnical Design
  • Empirical and Exact Methods of Analysis of Foundations
  • Design Loads for Foundations
  • Recommended Approach to Structural Design of Foundations
  • Review of Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete –
  • Ultimate Strength Design
  • Designing for Maximum Bending Moment ]
  • Determination of the Bending Moment Mu
  • Determination of Minimum Depth for Mu
  • Determination of Steel Area Required
  • Minimum Areas of Steel in R C Members
  • Checking for Bond
  • Design of Slabs and Beams for Bending Shear (One-Way Shear)
  • Shear in Beams
  • Design Procedure for Slabs in One-way Shear
  • Procedure for Design of Shear Steel in Beams
  • Punching Shear (Two-way Shear) in Slabs
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Width of Flange of T-Beams
  • IS Provisions for Design of Footings and Pedestals –
  • Introduction
  • Design Loads for Foundation Design
  • Basis of Structural Design of R C Footings
  • Soil Pressure on Foundations
  • Conventional Analysis of Footings Subjected to Vertical Load and Moments
  • General Comments
  • General Planning and Design of Independent Footings
  • Calculation of Shear for Design of Slab Footings
  • Bending Moment for Design
  • Minimum Depth and Detailing of Steel Requirements
  • Transfer of Load at Base of Column
  • Checking for Development Lengths of Main Bars in Footings
  • Design of Pedestals
  • Design Charts for Preliminary Design of Column and Wall Footings
  • Design Charts for Design of Columns and FootingsDesign of Centrally Loaded Isolated Footings and Column
  • Pedestals
  • General Procedure for Design
  • Design of Square Footing of Uniform Depth (Pad Footing)
  • Design of Sloped Rectangular Footings
  • Design Procedure
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Design of Rectangular Pad Footings
  • Design of Plain Concrete Footings
  • Design of Pedestals
  • Design Calculation for Pedestals
  • Wall Footings
  • Simple Plain Concrete Wall Footings
  • Dispersion of Load in Plain Concrete
  • Transfer Stress to Concrete
  • Reinforced Concrete Continuous Strip Wall Footings
  • Design of Continuous Strip Wall Footings
  • Design for Longitudinal Steel
  • R C T Beam or U Wall Footings in Shrinkable Soils
  • Design of R C T or U Continuous Beam Footings
  • Design of U Beam Wall Footings
  • Foundations of Partition Walls in Ground Floors
  • Design of Isolated Footings with Vertical Loads and Moments
  • Planning Layout of Isolated Column Footing with Constant
  • W and Mto Produce Uniform Base Pressure (Case )
  • Planning Layout of Isolated Column Footing with Constant W and
  • Varying Min One Direction Only (Case )
  • Procedure for Planning Layout of Footings W with and
  • Varying M
  • Isolated Column Footings with Constant W and Moments in any
  • Direction (Case)
  • Combined Footings for Two Columns
  • Types of Combined Footings
  • Action of Combined Footings
  • Planning Layout of Combined Footing
  • Distribution of Column Loads in the Transverse Direction
  • Enhanced Shear Near Supports
  • Combined Footing with Transverse Beams Under Column Loads
  • Steps in Design of Combined Slab Footings
  • Concept of Column Strip for Design of Transverse Steel in Combined Slab Footings
  • Steps in Design of Combined Beam and Slab Footing
  • Balanced Footings
  • Types of Balancing Used
  • Loads to be Taken for Calculation
  • Basis of DesignStrip Footings under Several Columns
  • Design Procedure for Equally Loaded and Equally Spaced Columns
  • Analysis of Continuous Strip Footing for Unsymmetric Loading
  • Analysis of Strip Footing with Unsymmetrical Loads
  • Detailing of Members
  • Raft Foundations
  • lO l Introduction
  • Rigid and Flexible Foundations
  • Common Types of Rafts
  • Plain Slab Rafts for Lightly Loaded Buildings
  • Flat Slab Rafts for Framed Buildings—Mat Foundation
  • Beam and Slab Rafts [Figure (b)]
  • Cellular Rafts [Figure (c), (d)]
  • Piled Rafts
  • Annular Rafts
  • Grid Foundation
  • Deflection Requirements of Beams and Slabs in Rafts
  • General Considerations in Design of Rigid Rafts
  • Types of Loadings and Choice of Rafts
  • Record of Contact Pressures Measured under Rafts
  • Modern Theoretical Analysis
  • Design of Flat Slab Rafts—Mat Foundations –
  • Preliminary Planning of Flat Slab Rafts
  • Columns
  • Main Slab
  • Edge Beams
  • Analysis of Flat Slab by Direct Design Method
  • Method of Analysis
  • Values for Longitudinal Distribution and Transverse
  • Redistribution
  • Shear in Flat Slabs
  • Bending of Columns in Flat Slabs
  • Limitations of Direct Design Method for Mats
  • Equivalent Frame Method of Analysis for Irregular Flat Slabs
  • Method of Equivalent Frame Analysis
  • Transverse Distribution of Moments along Panel Width in EFM
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Design of Edge Beam in Flat Slabs
  • Design of Slab around Edge Beam and its Corners
  • Use of Flat Slab in Irregular Layout of Columns
  • Beam and Slab Rafts
  • Planning of the Raft
  • Action of the Raft
  • Approximate Dimensioning of the Raft
  • Design of the Beam and Slab Raft under Uniform Pressure
  • Structural Analysis for the Main Slab
  • Design of Secondary and Main Beams
  • Analysis by Winkler Model
  • Modern Methods by use of Computers
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Compensated Foundations, Cellular Rafts and
  • Basement Floors
  • Types of Compensated Foundations
  • Construction of Cellular Rafts
  • Analysis
  • Principles of Design of Concrete Walls
  • Planning and Design of Basement Floors
  • Combined Piled Raft Foundation (CPRF)
  • Types and uses of Piled Rafts
  • Beneficial Effects of CPRF
  • Interaction of Pile and Raft
  • Ultimate Capacity and Settlement of Piles
  • Estimation of Settlement of Piles
  • Estimation of Settlement of Raft in Soils
  • Allowable Maximum and Differential Settlement in Buildings
  • Design of CPRF System
  • Conceptual Method of Design
  • Conceptual Method of Analysis
  • Distribution of Piles in the Rafts
  • Theoretical Methods of Analysis
  • Circular and Annular Rafts
  • Positioning of Chimney Load on Annular Raft
  • Forces Acting on Annular Rafts
  • Pressures under Dead Load and Moment
  • Methods of Analysis
  • Conventional Analysis of Annular Rafts
  • Nature of Moments and Shear
  • Analysis of Ring Beams under Circular Layout of Columns
  • Analysis of Ring Beams Transmitting Column Loads to
  • Annular Rafts
  • Detailing of Annular Raft under Columns of a Circular Water Tank
  • Circular Raft on Piles
  • Enlargement of Chimney Shafts for Annular Rafts
  • Under-reamed Pile Foundations
  • Safe Loads on Under-reamed Piles
  • Design of Under-reamed Pile Foundation for Load Bearing Walls of Buildings
  • Design of Grade Beams
  • Design of Under-reamed Piles under Columns of Buildings
  • Use of Under-reamed Piles for Expansive Soils
  • Design of Pile Caps
  • Shape of Pile Cap to be Adopted
  • Choosing Approximate Depth of Pile Cap
  • Checking for Punching Shear
  • Arrangement of Reinforcements
  • Eccentrically Loaded Pile Groups
  • Circular and Annular Pile Cap
  • Analysis of Forces on Vertical Piles
  • Analysis of Raked Piles (Inclined Pile)
  • Combined Pile Caps
  • Pile Foundations—Design of Large Diameter Socketed
  • Piles
  • Load Transfer Mechanism in Large Diameter Piles
  • Elastic Settlement of Piles and Need to Socket Large Diameter
  • Piles in Rock
  • Example for Calculation of Deformations
  • Subsurface Investigation of Weathered Rock and Rock
  • Method : Cole and Stroud Method of Investigation of Weathered Rock
  • Method : Chisel Energy Method for Classification of Rocks
  • Calculation of Bearing Capacity of Socketed Piles
  • Estimation of Total Pile Capacity of Large Diameter Piles
  • Estimating Carrying Capacity of Large Diameter Piles
  • Energy Level Test Method (By Datye and Karandikar)
  • Cole and Stroud Method
  • Reese and O’Neill Method
  • IRC Recommendations
  • Design of Cantilever and Basement Retaining Walls
  • Earth Pressure on Rigid Walls
  • Calculation of Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls
  • Design of Rigid Walls
  • Design of Ordinary R C Cantilever Walls
  • Design of Cantilever Walls without Toe
  • Design of Basement Walls
  • Calculation of Earth Pressures in Clays
  • Design of Free Standing Basement Walls
  • Infilled Virendeel Frame Foundations
  • Behaviour of Virendeel Girders without Infills
  • General Dimensions Adopted
  • Soil Condition
  • Procedure for Design of Virendeel Frame Foundation
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Steel Column Bases
  • Types of Bases
  • Design of R C Footings under Steel Columns
  • Design of Steel Grillage Foundation
  • Design Moments and Shears
  • Steps in Design of Grillage Foundations
  • Grillage Foundation as Combined Footing
  • Web Buckling and Web Crippling (Crushing) of -Beams under
  • Concentrated Loads
  • Web Buckling
  • Web Crippling or Web Crushing
  • Checking for Web Buckling and Web Crippling
  • Design of Pocket Bases
  • Analysis of Flexible Beams on Elastic Foundation –
  • Introduction
  • Methods of Analysis of Beams on Elastic Foundation
  • Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction and Winkler Model
  • Winkler Solution for a Continuous Beam on Elastic Foundation
  • Solution for a Column Load at P on a Beam of Infinite
  • Length
  • Moments and Shears in Long Beams due to Loads
  • Classification of Beams as Rigid and Flexible
  • Winkler Solution for Short Beam on Elastic Foundation
  • Limitations of Winkler Model and its Improvement
  • Approximate Values of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
  • (also called Subgrade Coefficients)
  • Elastic Half-space or Modulus of Compressibility Method for
  • Analysis of Beams on Elastic Foundation
  • Simplified ACI Method
  • Formulae for Contact Pressures under Perfect Rigid Structures
  • Selection of Suitable Model for Beams on Elastic Foundations
  • Analysis of Winkler and Elastic Half Space Model by Computers
  • Effect of Consolidation Settlement
  • Limitations of the Theory
  • ACI Method for Analysis of Beams and Grids on
  • Elastic Foundations –
  • Introduction
  • Derivation of the Method
  • Design Procedure
  • Analysis of Grid Foundations
  • Analysis of Flexible Plates on Elastic Foundations –
  • Description of ACI Procedure—Elastic Plate Method
  • Shells for Foundations
  • Classification of Shells
  • Common Types of Shells Used
  • Significance of Gaussian Curvature
  • Types of Shells Used in Foundations
  • Hyperbolic Paraboloids (Hypar Shells)
  • Components of a Hypar Footing
  • Use of Hypar Shells in Foundation
  • Conical Shell as Footing
  • Hyperbolic Paraboloid (Hypar) Shell Foundation –
  • Nature of Forces in Hypar Shells
  • Design of Various Members
  • Membrane Forces in Hypar Foundation
  • Forces in the Ridge Beams and the Edge Beams
  • Magnitude of Forces
  • Procedure in Design of Hypar Shell Foundation
  • Empirical Dimensioning of Hypar Footing
  • Detailing of Hypar Footings
  • Expressions for Ultimate Bearing Capacity
  • Design of Conical Shell Foundation –
  • Forces in the Shell under Column Loads
  • Result of Shell Analysis
  • Nature of Forces
  • Detailing of Steel
  • Effect of Earthquakes on Foundation Structures –
  • General Remarks about Earthquakes
  • Magnitude and Intensity of an Earthquake
  • Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)
  • Zone Factor (Z)
  • Relation between Various Factors
  • Response Spectrum
  • Damping Factor
  • Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient
  • Historical Development of IS
  • Philosophy of Design of Buildings according to IS ( )
  • Calculation of Base Shear by IS ( )
  • IS ( ) Recommendations Regarding Layout of Foundations
  • Classification of Foundation Strata
  • Types of Foundations Allowed in Sandy Soils
  • Types of Foundations that can be Adopted and Increase in
  • Safe Bearing Capacity Allowed
  • Summary of IS Recommendations for Foundation Design for Earthquakes
  • Liquefaction of Soils
  • Soils Susceptible to Liquefaction
  • Field Data on Liquefaction
  • Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) Method of Prediction
  • Amplification of Peak Ground Pressure of Rock Motion by
  • Soil Deposits
  • Ground Settlement
  • Methods to Prevent Liquefaction and Settlement

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