Electrical Connectors Design Manufacture Test and Selection

Electrical Connectors Design Manufacture Test and Selection

Electrical Connectors Design Manufacture Test and Selection

Contents of Electrical Connectors Design Manufacture Test and Selection

  • What Is an Electrical Connector?
  • Michael G Pecht and San Kyeong
  • Challenges of Separable Connectors
  • Components of a Connector
  • Contact Springs
  • Contact Finishes
  • Noble Metal Contact Finishes
  • Non-noble Metal Contact Finishes
  • Connector Housing
  • Contact Interface
  • Connector Types
  • Board-to-Board Connectors
  • Wire/Cable-to-Wire/Cable Connectors
  • Wire/Cable-to-Board Connectors
  • Connector Terminology
  • References
  • Connector Housing
  • Michael G Pecht
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Electrical Properties
  • Flammability
  • Temperature Rating
  • Housing Materials
  • Thermoplastic Polymers
  • Polyesters
  • Polyimides, Polyamide-imides, and Polyetherimides
  • Polyphenylene Sulfides
  • Polyether Ether Ketones
  • Liquid-Crystalline Polymers
  • Comparison ofThermoplastic Polymers
  • Thermosetting Polymers
  • Additives to Housing Materials
  • Manufacturing of Housing Materials
  • References
  • Contact Spring
  • Michael G Pecht
  • Copper Alloys
  • Unified Number System (UNS)
  • Properties of Copper Alloys
  • Nickel Alloys
  • Conductive Elastomers
  • ContactManufacturing
  • References
  • Contact Plating
  • Michael G Pecht
  • Noble Metal Plating
  • Gold
  • Palladium
  • Combination of Gold and Palladium
  • Non-noble Metal Plating
  • Silver
  • Characteristics of Silver as a Contact Finish
  • Potential Tarnish-Accelerating Factors
  • Use of Silver in Typical Connectors
  • Managing Silver Corrosion
  • Silver-Palladium Alloys
  • Nanocrystalline Silver Alloys
  • Silver-Bismuth Alloys Tin
  • Nickel Contact Finishes
  • Underplating
  • Plating Process
  • Electrolytic Plating
  • Rack Plating
  • Barrel Plating
  • Electroless Plating
  • Cladding
  • Hot Dipping
  • References
  • Insertion and Extraction Forces
  • Michael G Pecht
  • Insertion and Extraction Forces
  • Contact Retention
  • Contact Force and Deflection
  • Contact Wipe
  • References
  • Contact Interface
  • Michael G Pecht and San Kyeong
  • Constriction Resistance
  • Contact Resistance
  • Other Factors Affecting Contact Resistance
  • Current Rating
  • Capacitance and Inductance
  • Bandpass and Bandwidth
  • References
  • The Back-End Connection
  • Chien-Ming Huang, San Kyeong and Michael G Pecht
  • Soldered Connection
  • Press-Fit Connection
  • Crimping Connection
  • Insulation Displacement Connection
  • References
  • Loads and Failure Mechanisms
  • San Kyeong, Lovlesh Kaushik andMichael G Pecht
  • Environmental Loads
  • Temperature
  • Vibration Load
  • Humidity
  • Contamination
  • Differential Pressure
  • Failure Mechanisms in Electrical Connectors
  • Silver Migration
  • Tin Whiskers
  • Corrosion Failure
  • Dry Corrosion
  • Galvanic Corrosion
  • Pore Corrosion
  • Creep Corrosion
  • Fretting Corrosion
  • Arc Formation
  • Creep Failure
  • Wear
  • Frictional Polymerization
  • Case Study by NASA: Electrical Connectors for Spacecraft
  • References
  • Fretting in Connectors
  • Deepak Bondre andMichael G Pecht
  • Mechanisms of Fretting Failure
  • Material Factors That Affect Fretting
  • Contact Materials
  • Hardness
  • Surface Finish
  • Frictional Polymerization
  • Grain Size
  • Oxides
  • Coefficient of Friction
  • Electrochemical Factor
  • Operating FactorsThat Affect Fretting
  • Contact Load
  • Fretting Frequency
  • Slip Amplitude
  • Electric Current
  • Environmental FactorsThat Affect Fretting
  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • Dust
  • Reducing the Damage of Fretting
  • Lubrication
  • Improvement in Design
  • Coatings
  • References
  • Testing
  • Dielectric With standing Voltage Testing
  • Insulation Resistance Testing
  • Contact Resistance Testing
  • Current Rating
  • Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility
  • Testing
  • Temperature Life Testing
  • Thermal Cycling Testing
  • Thermal Shock Testing
  • Steady-State Humidity Testing
  • Temperature Cycling with Humidity Testing
  • Corrosion
  • Dry Corrosion
  • Creep Corrosion
  • Moist Corrosion
  • Fretting Corrosion
  • Mixed Flowing Gas Testing
  • Battelle Labs MFG Test Methods
  • EIA MFG Test Methods: EIA -TP A
  • IEC MFG Test Methods: IEC – – Part
  • Telcordia MFG Test Methods: Telcordia GR- -CORE Section
  • IBM MFG Test Methods: G (T)
  • CALCE MFG Chamber Capability
  • Vibration
  • Mechanical Shock
  • Mating Durability
  • Highly Accelerated Life Testing
  • Environmental Stress Screening
  • References
  • Supplier Selection
  • Connector Reliability
  • Capability MaturityModels
  • Key Reliability Practices
  • Reliability Requirements and Planning
  • Training and Development
  • Reliability Analysis
  • Reliability Testing
  • Supply-Chain Management
  • Failure Data Tracking and Analysis
  • Verification and Validation
  • Reliability Improvement
  • Reliability Capability of an Organization
  • The Evaluation Process
  • References
  • Selecting the Right Connector
  • Connector Requirements Based on Design and Targeted Application
  • Mating Cycles
  • Current and Power Ratings
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Termination Types
  • Materials
  • Connector Housing Materials
  • Connector Spring Materials
  • Contact Finishes
  • Reliability
  • Raw Cables and Assemblies
  • Supplier Reliability Capability Maturity
  • Connector Selection Team
  • Selection of Candidate Parts from a Preferred Parts Database
  • Electronic Product Manufacturers’ Parts Databases
  • Parts Procurement
  • Parts Availability
  • High-Speed Connector Selection
  • NASA Connector Selection
  • Harsh Environment Connector Selection
  • Fiber-Optic Interconnect Requirements by Market
  • High-Power Subsea Connector Selection
  • Undersea Connector Reliability
  • Screening Tests
  • Low-Voltage Automotive Single- and Multiple-Pole Connector
  • Validation
  • Failure Modes, Mechanisms, and Effects Analysis for Connectors
  • Connector Experiments
  • Summary
  • References
  • Signal Connector Selection
  • Issues Involving High-Speed Connectors
  • Signal Transmission Quality Considerations
  • Interconnect Delays
  • Signal Distortion
  • Electromagnetic Compatibility
  • Virtual Prototyping
  • TDR Impedance Measurements
  • Reflection Coefficient
  • TDR Resolution Factors
  • TDR Accuracy Factors
  • Vector Network Analyzer
  • Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE)
  • References
  • Advanced Technology Attachment Connectors
  • Neda Shafiei, Kyle LoGiudice andMichael G Pecht
  • ATA Connector and SATA Connector Overview
  • History of ATA and SATA
  • Physical Description of ATA Connectors, ATA Alternative Connectors, and
  • SATA Connectors
  • ATA Standardization and Revisions
  • SATA Standardization and Revisions
  • SATA in the Future
  • References
  • Power Connectors
  • Michael G Pecht and San Kyeong
  • Requirements for Power Connectors
  • Power Connector Materials
  • Types of Power Connectors
  • Power Contact Resistance
  • Continuous, Transient, and Overload Current Capacities
  • Continuous Current Capacity
  • Transient Current Capacity
  • Overload Current Capacity
  • Current Rating Method
  • References
  • Electrical Connectors for Underwater Applications
  • Flore Remouit, Jens Engström and Pablo Ruiz-Minguela
  • Background and Terminology
  • History
  • Terminology
  • Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Connectors
  • Rubber-Molded
  • Rigid-Shell or Bulkhead Assemblies
  • Fluid-Filled Underwater Mateable
  • Inductive Coupling
  • Assemblies (Non-unmateable)
  • Connector Design
  • Thermal Design
  • Electrical Properties
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Material Choices
  • Specifications for Underwater Connectors
  • Connector Deployment and Operation
  • Connection Procedure
  • Connection Layout
  • Reliability
  • Discussion and Conclusion
  • References
  • Examples of Connectors
  • Lei Su, Xiaonan Yu, San Kyeong andMichael G Pecht
  • Amphenol ICC M-SeriesTM Connectors
  • Amphenol ICC Paladin®Connectors
  • Amphenol ICC W EnergyEdgeTM X-treme Card Edge Series
  • Amphenol ICC FLTStack Connectors
  • Amphenol ICC HSBridge Connector System
  • Amphenol ICC MUSBR Series USB Type-A Connectors
  • Amphenol ICCWaterproof USB Type-CTM Connectors
  • Amphenol ICC NETBridgeTM Connectors
  • Amphenol Sine Systems DuraMateTM AHDP Circular Connectors
  • Amphenol Aerospace MIL-DTL- Series III Connectors
  • Fischer Connectors UltiMateTM Series Connectors
  • Hirose Electric DF Series Connectors
  • Hirose Electric microSDTM Card Connectors
  • Molex SAS- and U (SFF- ) Backplane Connectors
  • Molex NeoPressTM Mezzanine Connectors
  • Molex ImpelTM Plus Backplane Connectors
  • Molex EXTreme GuardianTM Power Connectors
  • Molex ImperiumTM High Voltage/High Current Connectors
  • TE Connectivity Free Height Connectors
  • TE Connectivity STRADA Whisper Connectors
  • TE Connectivity MULTI-BEAM High-Density (HD) Connectors
  • TE Connectivity HDMITM Connectors
  • TE Connectivity AMP CT Connector Series
  • TE Connectivity Micro Motor Connectors
  • TE Connectivity AMPSEAL Connectors
  • TE Connectivity M X-Code Connectors
  • TE Connectivity SOLARLOK Connectors
  • TE Connectivity Busbar Connectors
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Standards
  • A Standard References for Quality Management and Assurance
  • A General Specifications for Connectors
  • A Safety-Related Standards and Specifications
  • A Standard References for Connector Manufacturing
  • A Standard References for Socket Material Property Characterization
  • A Standard References for Socket Performance Qualification
  • A Standard References for Socket Reliability Qualification
  • A Other Standards and Specifications
  • A Telcordia
  • A Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE)
  • A Electronic Industries Alliance/Telecommunications Industry Association
  • (EIA/TIA)
  • A International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • A IEC Standards
  • A IEC Connectors
  • A Military Standards (MIL-STD)
  • A Standards for Space-Grade Connectors
  • References

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