Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers

Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers

PDF Free Download | Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers by Ed Lipiansky

Contents of Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware

  • From the Bottom Up: Voltages, Currents, and Electrical Components
  • An Introduction to Electric Charges and Atoms
  • Electric DC Voltage and Current Sources
  • Electric Current and Voltage
  • DC Voltage and Current Sources
  • Sources Internal Resistance
  • Electric Components: Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors
  • Resistors
  • Resistors in Series and in Parallel
  • Resistivity: A Physical Interpretation
  • Resistance of Conductors
  • Ohm’s Law, Power Delivered and Power Consumed
  • Voltage Source Internal Resistance
  • Capacitors
  • Physical Interpretation of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor
  • Capacitance
  • Capacitor Voltage Current Relationship
  • Capacitors in Series
  • Capacitors in Parallel
  • Energy Stored in a Capacitor
  • Real Capacitor Parameters and Capacitor Types
  • Inductors
  • Magnetism
  • Magnetic Field around a Coil
  • Magnetic Materials and Permeability
  • Electromagnetic Induction and Inductor Current–Voltage
  • Relationship
  • Inductors in Series
  • Inductors in Parallel
  • Mutual Inductance
  • Energy Stored by an Inductor
  • Inductor Nonlinearity
  • Inductor Component Selection
  • Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s Current
  • Law (KCL)
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Alternating Current Circuits
  • AC Voltage and Current Sources, Root Mean Square Values
  • (RMS), and Power
  • Ideal and Real AC Voltage Sources
  • Ideal and Real AC Current Sources
  • Sinusoidal Steady State: Time and Frequency Domains
  • Resistor under Sinusoidal Steady State
  • Inductor under Sinusoidal Steady State
  • Capacitor under Sinusoidal Steady State
  • Brief Complex Number Theory Facts
  • Time Domain Equations: Frequency Domain Impedance and
  • Phasors
  • The Impedance Concept
  • Purely Resistive Impedance
  • Inductive Impedance: Inductive Reactance
  • Purely Capacitive Impedance: Capacitive
  • Reactance
  • R, L, and C Impedances Combinations
  • Power in AC Circuits
  • AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by a Resistor
  • AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by a Capacitor
  • AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by an Inductor
  • Dependent Voltage and Current Sources
  • Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)
  • Current-Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)
  • Voltage-Controlled Current Source (VCCS)
  • Current-Controlled Current Source (CCCS)
  • Summary of Key Points
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Circuit Theorems and Methods of Circuit Analysis
  • Introduction
  • The Superposition Method
  • Circuits Superposition
  • The Thévenin Method
  • Application of the Thévenin Method
  • Norton’s Method
  • Source Transformations
  • Finding the Norton Equivalent Circuit Directly from the Given Circuit
  • The Mesh Method of Analysis
  • Establishing Mesh Equations Circuits with Voltage
  • Sources
  • Establishing Mesh Equations by Inspection of the Circuit
  • Establishing Mesh Equations When There Are also
  • Current Sources
  • Establishing Mesh Equations When There Are also
  • Dependent Sources
  • The Nodal Method of Analysis
  • Establishing Nodal Equations: Circuits with Independent
  • Current Sources
  • Establishing Nodal Equations by Inspection:
  • Circuits with Current Sources
  • Establishing Nodal Equations When There Are also
  • Voltage Sources
  • Establishing Nodal Equations When There Are
  • Dependent Sources
  • Which One Is the Best Method?
  • Superposition Theorem Highlights
  • Thévenin Theorem Highlights
  • Norton’s Theorem Highlights
  • Source Transformations Highlights
  • Mesh Method of Analysis Highlights
  • Nodal Method of Analysis Highlights
  • Using all the Methods
  • Solving Using Superposition
  • Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure by Thévenin
  • Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure by Norton
  • Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure
  • Using Source Transformations
  • Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure Using
  • the Mesh Method
  • Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure Using the Nodal Method
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • First- and Second-Order Circuits under Sinusoidal and
  • Step Excitations
  • Introduction
  • The First-Order RC Low-Pass Filter (LPF)
  • Frequency Domain Analysis
  • Brief Introduction to Gain and the
  • Decibel (dB)
  • RC LPF Magnitude and Phase Bode Plots
  • RC LPF Drawing a Bode Plot Using Just the Asymptotes
  • Interpretation of the RC LPF Bode Plots in the Time Domain
  • Why Do We Call This Circuit a LPF?
  • Time Domain Analysis of the RC LPF
  • First-order RC LPF under Pulse and Square-Wave
  • Excitation
  • The RC LPF as an Integrator
  • The First-Order RC High-Pass Filter (HPF)
  • RC HPF Frequency Domain Analysis
  • Drawing an RC HPF Bode Plot Using Just the
  • Asymptotes
  • Interpretation of the RC HPF Bode Plots in the Time Domain
  • Why Do We Call This Circuit an HPF?
  • Time Domain Analysis of the RC HPF
  • First-Order RC LPF under Pulse and Square-Wave
  • Excitation
  • The RC HPF as a Differentiator
  • Second-Order Circuits
  • Series RLC Second-Order Circuit
  • Second-Order Circuit in Sinusoidal Steady State:
  • Bode Plots
  • Drawing the Second-Order Bode Plots Using Asymptotic
  • Approximations
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • The Operational Amplifier as a Circuit Element
  • Introduction to the Operational Amplifier
  • Ideal and Real Op Amps
  • Brief Definition of Linear Amplifiers
  • Linear Applications of Op Amps
  • The Inverting Amplifier
  • The Noninverting Amplifier
  • The Buffer or Noninverting Amplifier of Unity Gain
  • The Inverting Adder
  • The Difference Amplifier
  • The Inverting Integrator
  • The Inverting Differentiator
  • A Practical Integrator and Differentiator Circuit
  • Op Amps Nonlinear Applications
  • The Open-Loop Comparator
  • Positive and Negative Voltage-Level Detectors Using
  • Comparators
  • Comparator with Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
  • Operational Amplifiers Nonidealities
  • Op Amp Selection Criteria
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Appendix to Chapter
  • Electronic Devices: Diodes, BJTs, and MOSFETs
  • Introduction to Electronic Devices
  • The Ideal Diode
  • The Half-Wave Rectifier
  • The Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
  • The Real Silicon Diode I-V Characteristics: Forward-Bias,
  • Reverse-Bias, and Breakdown Regions
  • Two More Realistic Diode Models
  • Photodiode
  • Light Emitting Diode (LED)
  • Schottky-Barrier Diode
  • Another Diode Application: Limiting and Clamping
  • Diodes
  • Diode Selection
  • Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
  • Basic Concepts on Intrinsic, n-type and p-type Silicon
  • Materials
  • The BJT as a Circuit Element
  • Bipolar Transistor I-V Characteristics
  • Biasing Techniques of Bipolar Transistors
  • Very Simple Biasing
  • Resistor Divider Biasing
  • Emitter Degeneration Resistor Biasing
  • Self-Biased Staged
  • Biasing Techniques of PNP Bipolar Transistors
  • Small Signal Model and Single-Stage Bipolar Amplifier
  • Configurations
  • Common Emitter (CE) Configuration
  • Common Emitter (CE) Configuration with Emitter
  • Degeneration
  • Common-Base (CB) Configuration
  • The Common-Collector (CC) Configuration
  • Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
  • MOSFET I-V Characteristics
  • MOSFET Small Signal Model
  • MOSFET Biasing Techniques
  • Common Source (CS) Configuration
  • Common Source (CS) Configuration with
  • Degeneration
  • Common Gate (CG) Configuration
  • Common Drain (CD) Configuration or Source
  • Follower
  • Other MOSFETs: Enhancement Mode p-Channel and
  • Depletion Mode (n-Channel and p-Channel)
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Combinational Circuits
  • Introduction to Digital Circuits
  • Binary Numbers: a Quick Introduction
  • Boolean Algebra
  • AND Logic Operation
  • OR Logic Operation (Also Called Inclusive OR, or XNOR)
  • NOT Logic Operation or Inversion—NAND
  • and NOR
  • Exclusive OR Logic Operation or XOR
  • DeMorgan’s Laws, Rules, and Theorems
  • Other Boolean Algebra Postulates and Theorems
  • The Duality Principle
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Minterms: Standard or Canonical Sum of Products
  • (SOP) Form
  • Maxterms: Standard or Canonical Product of Sums
  • Karnaugh Maps and Design Examples
  • Two-Variable Karnaugh Maps
  • Three-Variable Karnaugh Maps
  • Four-Variable Karnaugh Maps
  • Five-Variable Karnaugh Maps
  • Product of Sums Simplifications
  • Don’t Care Conditions
  • Logic Gates: Electrical and Timing Characteristics
  • Gates Key Electrical Characteristics
  • Gates Key Timing Characteristics
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Digital Design Building Blocks and More Advanced
  • Combinational Circuits
  • Combinational Circuits with More than One Output
  • Decoders and Encoders
  • Making Larger Decoders with Smaller Ones
  • Encoders
  • Multiplexers and Demultiplexers (MUXes and DEMUXes)
  • Multiplexers
  • Building Larger Multiplexers
  • De-Multiplexers
  • Signed and Unsigned Binary Numbers
  • One’s Complement Representation of Binary Numbers:
  • Addition
  • Two’s Complement Representation of Binary Numbers:
  • Addition
  • Other Numbering Systems
  • Arithmetic Circuits: Half-Adders (HA) and Full-Adders
  • (FA)
  • Building Larger Adders with Full-Adders
  • Notes about Full-Adder Timing
  • Subtracting with a -bit Adder Using ’s Complement
  • Representation
  • Subtracting with a -bit Adder Using ’s Complement
  • Representation
  • Carry Look Ahead (CLA) or Fast Carry Generation
  • Some Short-Hand Notation for Large Logic Blocks
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • Sequential Logic and State Machines
  • Introduction
  • Latches and Flip-Flops (FF)
  • NAND-Implemented R
  • S– Latch
  • SR-Latch with Enable
  • Master Slave SR-Flip-Flop
  • Master Slave JK Flip-Flop
  • Master Slave T and D Type Flip-Flops
  • Timing Characteristics of Sequential Elements
  • Timing of Flip-Flops with Additional Set and Reset
  • Control Inputs
  • Simple State Machines
  • SR Flip-Flop Excitation Table
  • T Flip-Flop Excitation Table
  • D Flip-Flop Excitation Table
  • Synchronous State Machines General Considerations
  • Synchronous State Machine Design Guidelines
  • Timing Considerations: Long and Short Path
  • Analyses
  • Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Problems
  • A Simple CPU Design
  • Our Simple CPU Instruction Set
  • Instruction Set Details: Register Transfer Language (RTL)
  • Building a Simple CPU: A Bottom-Up Approach
  • The Registers
  • The Memory Access Path or Memory Interface
  • The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
  • The Program Counter (PC)
  • Data Path Architecture: Putting the Logic Blocks Together
  • Data Path: LDA Instruction Fetch, Decode and
  • Execution RTL
  • All Other Instructions: Fetch, Decode and Execution:
  • RTL
  • The Simple CPU Controller
  • State Assignments and Controller Implementation
  • CPU Timing Requirements
  • Other System Pieces: Clock, Reset and Power Decoupling
  • Clock
  • Reset
  • Power Decoupling
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