 # Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers

Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers by Ed Lipiansky

## Contents of Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware

• From the Bottom Up: Voltages, Currents, and Electrical Components
• An Introduction to Electric Charges and Atoms
• Electric DC Voltage and Current Sources
• Electric Current and Voltage
• DC Voltage and Current Sources
• Sources Internal Resistance
• Electric Components: Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors
• Resistors
• Resistors in Series and in Parallel
• Resistivity: A Physical Interpretation
• Resistance of Conductors
• Ohm’s Law, Power Delivered and Power Consumed
• Voltage Source Internal Resistance
• Capacitors
• Physical Interpretation of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor
• Capacitance
• Capacitor Voltage Current Relationship
• Capacitors in Series
• Capacitors in Parallel
• Energy Stored in a Capacitor
• Real Capacitor Parameters and Capacitor Types
• Inductors
• Magnetism
• Magnetic Field around a Coil
• Magnetic Materials and Permeability
• Electromagnetic Induction and Inductor Current–Voltage
• Relationship
• Inductors in Series
• Inductors in Parallel
• Mutual Inductance
• Energy Stored by an Inductor
• Inductor Nonlinearity
• Inductor Component Selection
• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s Current
• Law (KCL)
• Summary
• Problems
• Alternating Current Circuits
• AC Voltage and Current Sources, Root Mean Square Values
• (RMS), and Power
• Ideal and Real AC Voltage Sources
• Ideal and Real AC Current Sources
• Sinusoidal Steady State: Time and Frequency Domains
• Resistor under Sinusoidal Steady State
• Inductor under Sinusoidal Steady State
• Capacitor under Sinusoidal Steady State
• Brief Complex Number Theory Facts
• Time Domain Equations: Frequency Domain Impedance and
• Phasors
• The Impedance Concept
• Purely Resistive Impedance
• Inductive Impedance: Inductive Reactance
• Purely Capacitive Impedance: Capacitive
• Reactance
• R, L, and C Impedances Combinations
• Power in AC Circuits
• AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by a Resistor
• AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by a Capacitor
• AC Instantaneous Power Drawn by an Inductor
• Dependent Voltage and Current Sources
• Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)
• Current-Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)
• Voltage-Controlled Current Source (VCCS)
• Current-Controlled Current Source (CCCS)
• Summary of Key Points
• Problems
• Circuit Theorems and Methods of Circuit Analysis
• Introduction
• The Superposition Method
• Circuits Superposition
• The Thévenin Method
• Application of the Thévenin Method
• Norton’s Method
• Source Transformations
• Finding the Norton Equivalent Circuit Directly from the Given Circuit
• The Mesh Method of Analysis
• Establishing Mesh Equations Circuits with Voltage
• Sources
• Establishing Mesh Equations by Inspection of the Circuit
• Establishing Mesh Equations When There Are also
• Current Sources
• Establishing Mesh Equations When There Are also
• Dependent Sources
• The Nodal Method of Analysis
• Establishing Nodal Equations: Circuits with Independent
• Current Sources
• Establishing Nodal Equations by Inspection:
• Circuits with Current Sources
• Establishing Nodal Equations When There Are also
• Voltage Sources
• Establishing Nodal Equations When There Are
• Dependent Sources
• Which One Is the Best Method?
• Superposition Theorem Highlights
• Thévenin Theorem Highlights
• Norton’s Theorem Highlights
• Source Transformations Highlights
• Mesh Method of Analysis Highlights
• Nodal Method of Analysis Highlights
• Using all the Methods
• Solving Using Superposition
• Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure by Thévenin
• Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure by Norton
• Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure
• Using Source Transformations
• Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure Using
• the Mesh Method
• Example : Solving the Circuit of Figure Using the Nodal Method
• Summary and Conclusions
• Problems
• First- and Second-Order Circuits under Sinusoidal and
• Step Excitations
• Introduction
• The First-Order RC Low-Pass Filter (LPF)
• Frequency Domain Analysis
• Brief Introduction to Gain and the
• Decibel (dB)
• RC LPF Magnitude and Phase Bode Plots
• RC LPF Drawing a Bode Plot Using Just the Asymptotes
• Interpretation of the RC LPF Bode Plots in the Time Domain
• Why Do We Call This Circuit a LPF?
• Time Domain Analysis of the RC LPF
• First-order RC LPF under Pulse and Square-Wave
• Excitation
• The RC LPF as an Integrator
• The First-Order RC High-Pass Filter (HPF)
• RC HPF Frequency Domain Analysis
• Drawing an RC HPF Bode Plot Using Just the
• Asymptotes
• Interpretation of the RC HPF Bode Plots in the Time Domain
• Why Do We Call This Circuit an HPF?
• Time Domain Analysis of the RC HPF
• First-Order RC LPF under Pulse and Square-Wave
• Excitation
• The RC HPF as a Differentiator
• Second-Order Circuits
• Series RLC Second-Order Circuit
• Second-Order Circuit in Sinusoidal Steady State:
• Bode Plots
• Drawing the Second-Order Bode Plots Using Asymptotic
• Approximations
• Summary
• Problems
• The Operational Amplifier as a Circuit Element
• Introduction to the Operational Amplifier
• Ideal and Real Op Amps
• Brief Definition of Linear Amplifiers
• Linear Applications of Op Amps
• The Inverting Amplifier
• The Noninverting Amplifier
• The Buffer or Noninverting Amplifier of Unity Gain
• The Difference Amplifier
• The Inverting Integrator
• The Inverting Differentiator
• A Practical Integrator and Differentiator Circuit
• Op Amps Nonlinear Applications
• The Open-Loop Comparator
• Positive and Negative Voltage-Level Detectors Using
• Comparators
• Comparator with Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
• Operational Amplifiers Nonidealities
• Op Amp Selection Criteria
• Summary
• Problems
• Appendix to Chapter
• Electronic Devices: Diodes, BJTs, and MOSFETs
• Introduction to Electronic Devices
• The Ideal Diode
• The Half-Wave Rectifier
• The Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
• The Real Silicon Diode I-V Characteristics: Forward-Bias,
• Reverse-Bias, and Breakdown Regions
• Two More Realistic Diode Models
• Photodiode
• Light Emitting Diode (LED)
• Schottky-Barrier Diode
• Another Diode Application: Limiting and Clamping
• Diodes
• Diode Selection
• Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
• Basic Concepts on Intrinsic, n-type and p-type Silicon
• Materials
• The BJT as a Circuit Element
• Bipolar Transistor I-V Characteristics
• Biasing Techniques of Bipolar Transistors
• Very Simple Biasing
• Resistor Divider Biasing
• Emitter Degeneration Resistor Biasing
• Self-Biased Staged
• Biasing Techniques of PNP Bipolar Transistors
• Small Signal Model and Single-Stage Bipolar Amplifier
• Configurations
• Common Emitter (CE) Configuration
• Common Emitter (CE) Configuration with Emitter
• Degeneration
• Common-Base (CB) Configuration
• The Common-Collector (CC) Configuration
• Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
• MOSFET I-V Characteristics
• MOSFET Small Signal Model
• MOSFET Biasing Techniques
• Common Source (CS) Configuration
• Common Source (CS) Configuration with
• Degeneration
• Common Gate (CG) Configuration
• Common Drain (CD) Configuration or Source
• Follower
• Other MOSFETs: Enhancement Mode p-Channel and
• Depletion Mode (n-Channel and p-Channel)
• Summary
• Problems
• Combinational Circuits
• Introduction to Digital Circuits
• Binary Numbers: a Quick Introduction
• Boolean Algebra
• AND Logic Operation
• OR Logic Operation (Also Called Inclusive OR, or XNOR)
• NOT Logic Operation or Inversion—NAND
• and NOR
• Exclusive OR Logic Operation or XOR
• DeMorgan’s Laws, Rules, and Theorems
• Other Boolean Algebra Postulates and Theorems
• The Duality Principle
• Venn Diagrams
• Minterms: Standard or Canonical Sum of Products
• (SOP) Form
• Maxterms: Standard or Canonical Product of Sums
• Karnaugh Maps and Design Examples
• Two-Variable Karnaugh Maps
• Three-Variable Karnaugh Maps
• Four-Variable Karnaugh Maps
• Five-Variable Karnaugh Maps
• Product of Sums Simplifications
• Don’t Care Conditions
• Logic Gates: Electrical and Timing Characteristics
• Gates Key Electrical Characteristics
• Gates Key Timing Characteristics
• Summary
• Problems
• Digital Design Building Blocks and More Advanced
• Combinational Circuits
• Combinational Circuits with More than One Output
• Decoders and Encoders
• Making Larger Decoders with Smaller Ones
• Encoders
• Multiplexers and Demultiplexers (MUXes and DEMUXes)
• Multiplexers
• Building Larger Multiplexers
• De-Multiplexers
• Signed and Unsigned Binary Numbers
• One’s Complement Representation of Binary Numbers:
• Two’s Complement Representation of Binary Numbers:
• Other Numbering Systems
• (FA)
• Subtracting with a -bit Adder Using ’s Complement
• Representation
• Subtracting with a -bit Adder Using ’s Complement
• Representation
• Carry Look Ahead (CLA) or Fast Carry Generation
• Some Short-Hand Notation for Large Logic Blocks
• Summary
• Problems
• Sequential Logic and State Machines
• Introduction
• Latches and Flip-Flops (FF)
• NAND-Implemented R
• S– Latch
• SR-Latch with Enable
• Master Slave SR-Flip-Flop
• Master Slave JK Flip-Flop
• Master Slave T and D Type Flip-Flops
• Timing Characteristics of Sequential Elements
• Timing of Flip-Flops with Additional Set and Reset
• Control Inputs
• Simple State Machines
• SR Flip-Flop Excitation Table
• T Flip-Flop Excitation Table
• D Flip-Flop Excitation Table
• Synchronous State Machines General Considerations
• Synchronous State Machine Design Guidelines
• Timing Considerations: Long and Short Path
• Analyses
• Summary
• Problems
• A Simple CPU Design
• Our Simple CPU Instruction Set
• Instruction Set Details: Register Transfer Language (RTL)
• Building a Simple CPU: A Bottom-Up Approach
• The Registers
• The Memory Access Path or Memory Interface
• The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
• The Program Counter (PC)
• Data Path Architecture: Putting the Logic Blocks Together
• Data Path: LDA Instruction Fetch, Decode and
• Execution RTL
• All Other Instructions: Fetch, Decode and Execution:
• RTL
• The Simple CPU Controller
• State Assignments and Controller Implementation
• CPU Timing Requirements
• Other System Pieces: Clock, Reset and Power Decoupling
• Clock
• Reset
• Power Decoupling

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