Electrical Submersible Pumps Manual Design, Operations, and Maintenance 2nd Edition by Gabor Takacs, Ph.D

Electrical Submersible Pumps Manual Design, Operations, and Maintenance

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Contents of Electrical Submersible Pumps Manual

  • Introduction
  • Artificial Lifting
  • Gas Lifting
  • Pumping
  • Comparison of Lift Methods
  • Lifting Capacities
  • System Efficiencies
  • Further Considerations
  • Short History of Electrical Submersible Pumping Applications
  • Basic Features of Electric Submersible Pumping Installations
  • Applications
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • References
  • Review of Fundamentals
  • Introduction
  • Well Inflow Performance
  • Introduction
  • The Productivity Index Concept
  • Inflow Performance Relationships
  • Introduction
  • Vogel s Inflow Performance Relationship
  • Correlation
  • The Composite Inflow Performance
  • Relationship Curve
  • Hydraulic Fundamentals
  • Tubing Flow Calculations
  • Electrical Submersible Pumps
  • Operational Basics of Centrifugal Pumps
  • Specific Speed
  • Pump Performance
  • Cavitation
  • Axial Thrust Forces
  • Affinity Laws
  • Electrical Fundamentals
  • Alternating Current
  • Alternating Current Circuits Alternating Current Power
  • Transformers
  • Electric Motors
  • Induction Motors
  • Permanent Magnet Motors
  • Electric Cable
  • Basics of Systems Analysis
  • Introduction
  • The Production System
  • Basic Principles
  • References
  • Electrical Submersible Pump Components and Their Operational Features
  • Introduction
  • The Submersible Pump
  • Basic Features
  • Pump Performance Curves
  • Floating Versus Fixed Impeller Pumps
  • Pump Temperature
  • Novel Pump Stage Design and Manufacturing
  • The ESP Motor
  • Induction Type Asynchronous Motors
  • Motor Construction
  • Operational Features
  • Motor Performance
  • Motor Testing
  • Performance Curves
  • Startup Conditions
  • Motor Temperature
  • Heat Transfer Calculations
  • Allowed Motor Temperature
  • High Performance Motors
  • Permanent Magnet Motors
  • Introduction
  • Motor Controllers for Permanent Magnet
  • Motors
  • Scalar Control
  • Vector Control
  • Constructional Details
  • Operational Features
  • Ultrahigh Speed Permanent Magnet
  • Motor Applications
  • Comparison with Induction Motors
  • Case Studies
  • Conclusions
  • The Protector or Seal Section
  • Main Functions
  • Basic Operation
  • Main Parts
  • The Thrust Bearing
  • Isolation Chambers
  • Labyrinth Type Chambers
  • Blocking Fluids
  • Bag Type Chambers
  • Metal Bellows Type Chambers
  • Shaft Seals
  • Other Features
  • The Gravitational Gas Separator
  • The ESP Cable
  • Cable Materials
  • Cable Construction
  • Operational Features
  • Miscellaneous Downhole Equipment
  • Surface Equipment
  • Wellhead
  • Junction Box
  • Switchboard
  • Transformers
  • Miscellaneous Equipment
  • References
  • Use of ESP Equipment in Special Conditions
  • Introduction
  • Pumping Viscous Liquids
  • Introduction
  • The Hydraulic Institute Model
  • Other Models
  • Low or Changing Pumping Rates
  • Low Rate Pumps
  • Wide Operating Range Pumps
  • Production of Gassy Wells
  • Introduction
  • Free Gas Volume Calculations
  • Pump Performance Degradation
  • Gas Interference in Centrifugal Pumps
  • Performance Criteria
  • Possible Solutions
  • Utilization of Natural Gas Separation
  • Pump Set Below the
  • Perforations
  • Use of Motor Shrouds
  • Rotary Gas Separators
  • Available Types
  • The Role of Inducers
  • Separation Efficiencies
  • Gas Handling
  • Legacy Methods
  • Modern Solutions
  • Conclusions
  • Production of Abrasive Solids
  • Conventional Pumps
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of Abrasive Materials
  • Sand Problem Areas
  • Pump Erosion
  • Abrasion in Radial Bearings
  • Abrasion in Thrust Washers
  • Solutions
  • Reduction of Radial Wear
  • Preventing Sand Accumulation Above
  • the Pump
  • Conclusions
  • Special Pumps for Abrasive Handling
  • High Well Temperatures
  • Temperature Problems and Solutions
  • Geothermal Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
  • Applications
  • Variable Frequency Operation
  • Pump Performance at Variable Speeds
  • Variable Speed Drives
  • Constructional Details
  • The Rectifier
  • The Direct Current Control
  • Section
  • The Inverter
  • Available Variable Speed Drive Types
  • Six Step Variable Speed
  • Drive
  • Pulsed Width Modulation
  • Sine Wave Generators
  • Vector Control Devices
  • Operational Characteristics
  • Variable Frequency Generators
  • Interaction of VSD VFG and ESP Units
  • Variable Frequency Operation of
  • Electrical Motors
  • Interaction of ESP Motors and VSD VFG
  • Units
  • Benefits of Using Variable Speed Drive VariableFrequency Generator Units
  • Other Problems
  • References
  • Design of ESP Installations
  • Introduction
  • Data Requirements
  • Conventional Design
  • Well Inflow Calculations
  • Total Dynamic Head Calculations
  • Selection of the Pump
  • Pump Series
  • Pump Type
  • Number of Stages Pump Power
  • Checking the Pump s Mechanical Strength
  • Selection of the Protector
  • Motor Selection
  • Selection of the Power Cable
  • Cable Length
  • Cable Type
  • Cable Size
  • Checking Motor Startup
  • Switchboard and Transformer Selection
  • Miscellaneous Equipment
  • Downhole Equipment
  • Surface Equipment
  • Conventional Design Considering Motor Slip
  • Introduction
  • Interaction of the ESP Motor and the Pump
  • Changes in the Conventional Design
  • Finding Actual Motor Speed
  • Finding Pump Head Including Motor Slip
  • Gassy Well Design
  • Inflow and Free Gas Calculations
  • Calculation of Total Dynamic Head
  • The Rest of the Design Procedure
  • Design of a Variable Speed Drive Installation
  • Introduction
  • Pump Selection for Variable Speed Drive Service
  • Driving Frequency and the Number of
  • Stages
  • Checking Pump Operation at the Minimum
  • Liquid Rate
  • Motor Selection
  • Switchboard and Transformers
  • Design of a Permanent Magnet Motor Installation
  • Design Considerations
  • Selection of the Pump
  • Selection of the Permanent Magnet Motor
  • Comparison of Induction Motor and Permanent Magnet
  • Motor Installations
  • References
  • Analysis and Optimization
  • Introduction
  • NODAL Analysis
  • Using the HeadeRate Coordinate System
  • Single Phase Cases
  • Constant Pumping Speed
  • Variable Pumping Speeds
  • Variable Wellhead Pressures
  • Multiphase Cases
  • Calculation Model
  • Applications
  • Using the PressureeRate Coordinate System
  • Single Phase Cases
  • Multiphase Cases
  • Determination of Well Inflow Performance
  • The Conventional Method
  • Use of Variable Speed Drives
  • Calculation of Bottomhole Pressures
  • Introduction
  • Annular Liquid Gradients
  • Static Conditions
  • Flowing Conditions
  • Power Efficiency of ESP Installations
  • Power Flow in the ESP System
  • Energy Losses and Efficiencies
  • Hydraulic Losses
  • Tubing Losses
  • Backpressure Losses
  • Pump Losses
  • Power Loss in Gas Separator
  • Electrical Losses
  • Motor Losses
  • Cable Losses
  • Surface Electrical Losses
  • System Efficiency
  • Optimization of Electrical Submersible Pump Operations
  • Introduction
  • Basics of Economic Optimization
  • References
  • Operation Monitoring and Surveillance of Electrical Submersible Pumping Systems
  • Introduction
  • Guidelines for Running and Pulling
  • Transportation to the Wellsite
  • Equipment Installation
  • Motor Installation
  • Protector Installation
  • Pump Installation
  • ESP Cable Installation
  • Final Measures
  • Running Equipment in the Well
  • System Startup
  • Pulling ESP Equipment
  • Production Control
  • Introduction
  • The Effects of Using Wellhead Chokes
  • The Need for Wellhead Chokes
  • Use of Variable Speed Drive Units
  • Sample Calculations
  • Monitoring ESP Operations
  • Introduction
  • Acoustic Surveys
  • Downhole Measurements
  • Instruments and Communications
  • Measured Parameters and Their Use
  • Surface Controllers
  • Introduction
  • Fixed Speed Drives
  • Variable Speed Drives
  • ESP Controller Functions
  • Surveillance of ESP Operations
  • Introduction
  • Key Challenges and Requirements in Production
  • Operations
  • The Digital Oilfield
  • An Overview
  • Digital Oilfield Step by Step Progression
  • ESP Data Visualization
  • Well Status and Well Group Status
  • Analysis Using Data Trend Visualization
  • References
  • Failures and Troubleshooting
  • Introduction
  • System Failures
  • Contents xi
  • General Causes of Failures
  • Vibrations in the ESP System
  • Typical Failures of System Components
  • ESP Teardown Analysis
  • Introduction
  • General Considerations
  • Motor Inspection
  • Protector Inspection
  • Pump Inspection
  • Cable Inspection
  • Inspection of Other Equipment
  • Failure Tracking
  • Run Life Estimation
  • Introduction
  • Run Life Measures
  • Lifetime Distribution
  • Troubleshooting Electrical Submersible Pumping
  • Installations
  • Interpretation of Ammeter Charts
  • Nodal Analysis Techniques
  • Introduction
  • Applications
  • The Use of Measured Pump Intake and
  • Discharge Pressures
  • References
  • Special Installations
  • Introduction
  • Tubing Deployed Installations
  • Producing a Single Zone
  • Shrouded and Horizontal Well
  • Installations
  • Parallelly Connected Installations
  • Series Connected Installations
  • Dual Zone Installations
  • Production Commingling
  • Selective Production
  • Alternative Deployed Installations
  • Cable Suspended Units
  • Coiled Tubing Installations
  • Cable Led Outside the Coiled Tubing
  • String
  • Cable Led Inside the Coiled Tubing String
  • Thru Tubing Deployed Systems
  • Retrievable ESP Pumps
  • Retrievable ESP Systems
  • Conclusions
  • Horizontal Pumping Systems
  • Available Configurations
  • Typical Applications
  • References

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