Nonaqueous Electrolytes: Advances in Lithium Salts Wesley A Henderson Introduction Electrolyte Salt Properties Established Salts Electrolyte Characterization Tools Advanced Salts—Fluoroborates and -Phosphates Advanced Salts—Perfl uoroalkylacetates, -Sulfonates, and -Phosphates Advanced Salts—Imides, Methides, and Phosphorylimides Advanced Salts—Organoborates, -Phosphates, and -Aluminates Advanced Salts—Other Anions Adoption Criterion for New Salts Summary References Nonaqueous Electrolytes with Advances in Solvents Makoto Ue, Yukio Sasaki, Yasutaka Tanaka, and Masayuki Morita General Remarks (Makoto Ue) Fluorine-Containing Organic Solvents (Yukio Sasaki) Introduction Fluorinated Lactones Fluorinated Linear Carboxylates Fluorinated Cyclic Carbonates Fluorinated Linear Carbonates Fluorinated Monoethers Fluorinated Diethers Other Fluorinated Solvents Summary Boron-Containing Organic Solvents (Yasutaka Tanaka) Introduction Nature of Boron Compounds Boric Esters Cyclic Boric Esters Other Boron Compounds Summary Phosphorous-Containing Organic Solvents (Masayuki Morita) Introduction Alkylphosphates and Related Compounds as Flame- Retardant Additives/Co-solvents Polymeric Gel Electrolytes Containing Alkylphosphates Summary Sulfur-Containing Organic Solvents (Makoto Ue) Introduction Properties of Organo-Sulfur Compounds Electrolyte Formulation and Cell Performance Summary References Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Advances in Additives Koji Abe General Theory Background of This Chapter Introduction Functional Electrolytes Highly Purifi ed Electrolytes Classifi cation of Additives Additives for Anodes Compounds Containing Unsaturated Carbon–Carbon Bond Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides Oxalates Sulfur-Containing Compounds Halogen-Containing Compounds Phosphorus-Containing Compounds Nitrogen-Containing Compounds Additives for Cathodes Sulfur-Containing Compounds with Active Site Poisoning Function Aromatic Compounds Forming an Electro-Conducting Membrane Additives for Safety Improvement Additives for Overcharge Prevention Nonfl ammable Solvents and Additives Others Miscellaneous Additives for Wettability Improvement Additives for Corrosion Inhibition Lithium Salts Future Prospects References Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids for Lithium Secondary Batteries Hajime Matsumoto Introduction Research and Development of Ionic Liquids for Battery Electrolytes During the Past Decade Conventional Ionic Liquids Composed of [Tf N]− and [BF ]− New Ionic Liquids Composed of New Anions Developed During the Past Decade Application of ILs in Lithium Battery Systems During the Past Decade Conventional ILs Composed of [Tf N]− and [BF ]− New ILs Composed of New Anions Thermal Stability of ILs Summary References Interphases Between Electrolytes and Anodes in Li-Ion Battery Mengqing Xu, Lidan Xing, and Weishan Li Background Introduction: Signifi cance in Understanding of Interphases and Challenges Signifi cance of Interphase in Li-Ion Batteries Symbolic Signifi cance: PC–EC Disparity State of the History (Before ) -D vs -D Formation Mechanism Extension from Li Metal Chemical Ingredients New Insights Achieved Since Chemistry Formation Mechanism Properties of Interphases Tailoring a Desired Interphase Other Anodes: New Challenges from Alloy Anodes (Si, Sn) Summary References On the Surface Chemistry of Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Susai Francis Amalraj, Ronit Sharabi, Hadar Sclar, and Doron Aurbach Introduction On the Type of Cathode Reactions and the General Effect of the Nature of Cathode Material on Its Surface Chemistry On the Anodic Stability of the Electrolyte Solutions, the Contribution of the Current Collectors and Carbon Black How to Measure Surface Reactions of Cathode Materials and Relevant Composite Electrodes FTIR Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ICP Electron Microscopy Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy A General Presentation of Various Surface Chemical Aspects and Their Demonstration The Effect of Nano-Size On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy, Lithiated Transition Metal Oxide Electrodes, and LiMPO Olivine Cathodes; Some Examples and Introductory Remarks On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy-Type Cathodes SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition Metal Oxide Spinel Materials SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition Metal Oxide Layered Materials On Surface Structural Changes (Phase Transformation) in the Course of the First Delithiation of Lithiated Transition Metal Cathodes (First Charging Processes) The Effect of Additives on the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy Cathode Materials Coating the Surface of Li–Ni–Co–Mn–O Cathodes in Order to Improve Electrochemical Performance and Stability On the Surface Chemistry of LiMPO -Type Cathodes On the Surface Chemical Aspects of O Cathodes Summary References Tools and Methodologies for the Characterization of Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces Jordi Cabana Introduction Electrical Characterization Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques of Compositional Analysis Thermal Extraction Dissolution Physical Extraction Dynamic Analyses Vibrational Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy UV–Visible Techniques UV–Vis Spectroscopy Ellipsometry X-Ray-Based Techniques X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Grazing Incidence/Exit Spectroscopy and Diffraction Refl ectometry (or Refl ectivity) Neutron-Based Techniques Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Scanning Probe Microscopy Electron Microscopy Spectromicroscopy Outlook References Molecular Modeling of Electrolytes Oleg Borodin Introduction to Molecular Modeling Methodologies Quantum Chemistry Studies of Electrolyte Oxidation Redox Stability and Reactions Absolute and Electrochemical Scales of Electrolyte Redox Stability Calculations of the Electrolyte Oxidation Stability Oxidation Decomposition Products Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Bulk Electrolytes Organic Liquid Electrolytes Modeling of Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Modeling of SEI Components MD Simulations of the Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces Modeling the SEI–Electrolyte Interface References Prediction of Electrolyte and Additive Electrochemical Stabilities Johan Scheers and Patrik Johansson Introduction Aim and Approaches The Computational Aim Experimental Data and Verifi cation Computational Approaches Prediction Put in Practice Solvents Salts Additives Summary and Outlook References Aprotic Electrolytes in Li–Air Batteries Kah Chun Lau, Rajeev S Assary, and Larry A Curtiss Introduction The Li–O Couple in Aprotic Electrolytes Overview of Theoretical Methods for Electrolytes Organic Carbonate Solvents: Lessons Learned Ether-Based Solvents Conclusions and Future Outlook

Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

PDF Free Download | Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium Ion Batteries by T. Richard Jow & Kang Xu & Oleg Borodin & Makoto Ue

Contents of Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium Ion Batteries

  • Nonaqueous Electrolytes: Advances in Lithium Salts
  • Wesley A Henderson
  • Introduction
  • Electrolyte Salt Properties
  • Established Salts
  • Electrolyte Characterization Tools
  • Advanced Salts—Fluoroborates and -Phosphates
  • Advanced Salts—Perfl uoroalkylacetates, -Sulfonates,
  • and -Phosphates
  • Advanced Salts—Imides, Methides,
  • and Phosphorylimides
  • Advanced Salts—Organoborates, -Phosphates,
  • and -Aluminates
  • Advanced Salts—Other Anions
  • Adoption Criterion for New Salts
  • Summary
  • References
  • Nonaqueous Electrolytes with Advances in Solvents
  • Makoto Ue, Yukio Sasaki, Yasutaka Tanaka, and Masayuki Morita
  • General Remarks (Makoto Ue)
  • Fluorine-Containing Organic Solvents (Yukio Sasaki)
  • Introduction
  • Fluorinated Lactones
  • Fluorinated Linear Carboxylates
  • Fluorinated Cyclic Carbonates
  • Fluorinated Linear Carbonates
  • Fluorinated Monoethers
  • Fluorinated Diethers
  • Other Fluorinated Solvents
  • Summary
  • Boron-Containing Organic Solvents
  • (Yasutaka Tanaka)
  • Introduction
  • Nature of Boron Compounds
  • Boric Esters
  • Cyclic Boric Esters
  • Other Boron Compounds
  • Summary
  • Phosphorous-Containing Organic Solvents
  • (Masayuki Morita)
  • Introduction
  • Alkylphosphates and Related Compounds
  • as Flame- Retardant Additives/Co-solvents
  • Polymeric Gel Electrolytes Containing
  • Alkylphosphates
  • Summary
  • Sulfur-Containing Organic Solvents (Makoto Ue)
  • Introduction
  • Properties of Organo-Sulfur Compounds
  • Electrolyte Formulation and Cell Performance
  • Summary
  • References
  • Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Advances in Additives
  • Koji Abe
  • General Theory
  • Background of This Chapter
  • Introduction
  • Functional Electrolytes
  • Highly Purifi ed Electrolytes
  • Classifi cation of Additives
  • Additives for Anodes
  • Compounds Containing Unsaturated
  • Carbon–Carbon Bond
  • Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides
  • Oxalates
  • Sulfur-Containing Compounds
  • Halogen-Containing Compounds
  • Phosphorus-Containing Compounds
  • Nitrogen-Containing Compounds
  • Additives for Cathodes
  • Sulfur-Containing Compounds with Active Site
  • Poisoning Function
  • Aromatic Compounds Forming an Electro-Conducting
  • Membrane
  • Additives for Safety Improvement
  • Additives for Overcharge Prevention
  • Nonfl ammable Solvents and Additives
  • Others
  • Miscellaneous
  • Additives for Wettability Improvement
  • Additives for Corrosion Inhibition
  • Lithium Salts
  • Future Prospects
  • References
  • Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids for Lithium
  • Secondary Batteries
  • Hajime Matsumoto
  • Introduction
  • Research and Development of Ionic Liquids
  • for Battery Electrolytes During the Past Decade
  • Conventional Ionic Liquids Composed
  • of [Tf N]− and [BF ]−
  • New Ionic Liquids Composed of New Anions
  • Developed During the Past Decade
  • Application of ILs in Lithium Battery Systems
  • During the Past Decade
  • Conventional ILs Composed of [Tf N]− and [BF ]−
  • New ILs Composed of New Anions
  • Thermal Stability of ILs
  • Summary
  • References
  • Interphases Between Electrolytes and Anodes in Li-Ion Battery
  • Mengqing Xu, Lidan Xing, and Weishan Li
  • Background
  • Introduction: Signifi cance in Understanding
  • of Interphases and Challenges
  • Signifi cance of Interphase in Li-Ion Batteries
  • Symbolic Signifi cance: PC–EC Disparity
  • State of the History (Before )
  • -D vs -D Formation Mechanism
  • Extension from Li Metal
  • Chemical Ingredients
  • New Insights Achieved Since
  • Chemistry
  • Formation Mechanism
  • Properties of Interphases
  • Tailoring a Desired Interphase
  • Other Anodes: New Challenges
  • from Alloy Anodes (Si, Sn)
  • Summary
  • References
  • On the Surface Chemistry of Cathode Materials
  • in Li-Ion Batteries
  • Susai Francis Amalraj, Ronit Sharabi, Hadar Sclar, and Doron Aurbach
  • Introduction
  • On the Type of Cathode Reactions and the General Effect
  • of the Nature of Cathode Material on Its Surface Chemistry
  • On the Anodic Stability of the Electrolyte Solutions,
  • the Contribution of the Current Collectors and Carbon Black
  • How to Measure Surface Reactions of Cathode Materials
  • and Relevant Composite Electrodes
  • FTIR Spectroscopy
  • Raman Spectroscopy
  • X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
  • ICP
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
  • A General Presentation of Various Surface Chemical
  • Aspects and Their Demonstration
  • The Effect of Nano-Size
  • On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy,
  • Lithiated Transition Metal Oxide Electrodes,
  • and LiMPO Olivine Cathodes; Some Examples
  • and Introductory Remarks
  • On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy-Type Cathodes
  • SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition
  • Metal Oxide Spinel Materials
  • SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition
  • Metal Oxide Layered Materials
  • On Surface Structural Changes (Phase Transformation)
  • in the Course of the First Delithiation of Lithiated
  • Transition Metal Cathodes
  • (First Charging Processes)
  • The Effect of Additives on the Surface Chemistry
  • of LixMOy Cathode Materials
  • Coating the Surface of Li–Ni–Co–Mn–O Cathodes
  • in Order to Improve Electrochemical Performance
  • and Stability
  • On the Surface Chemistry of LiMPO -Type Cathodes
  • On the Surface Chemical Aspects of O Cathodes
  • Summary
  • References
  • Tools and Methodologies for the Characterization
  • of Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces
  • Jordi Cabana
  • Introduction
  • Electrical Characterization
  • Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance
  • Techniques of Compositional Analysis
  • Thermal Extraction
  • Dissolution
  • Physical Extraction
  • Dynamic Analyses
  • Vibrational Spectroscopy
  • Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
  • Raman Spectroscopy
  • UV–Visible Techniques
  • UV–Vis Spectroscopy
  • Ellipsometry
  • X-Ray-Based Techniques
  • X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
  • X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)
  • Grazing Incidence/Exit Spectroscopy and Diffraction
  • Refl ectometry (or Refl ectivity)
  • Neutron-Based Techniques
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • Microscopy
  • Scanning Probe Microscopy
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Spectromicroscopy
  • Outlook
  • References
  • Molecular Modeling of Electrolytes
  • Oleg Borodin
  • Introduction to Molecular Modeling Methodologies
  • Quantum Chemistry Studies of Electrolyte Oxidation
  • Redox Stability and Reactions
  • Absolute and Electrochemical Scales
  • of Electrolyte Redox Stability
  • Calculations of the Electrolyte Oxidation Stability
  • Oxidation Decomposition Products
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Bulk Electrolytes
  • Organic Liquid Electrolytes
  • Modeling of Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
  • Modeling of SEI Components
  • MD Simulations of the Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces
  • Modeling the SEI–Electrolyte Interface
  • References
  • Prediction of Electrolyte and Additive Electrochemical Stabilities
  • Johan Scheers and Patrik Johansson
  • Introduction
  • Aim and Approaches
  • The Computational Aim
  • Experimental Data and Verifi cation
  • Computational Approaches
  • Prediction Put in Practice
  • Solvents
  • Salts
  • Additives
  • Summary and Outlook
  • References
  • Aprotic Electrolytes in Li–Air Batteries
  • Kah Chun Lau, Rajeev S Assary, and Larry A Curtiss
  • Introduction
  • The Li–O Couple in Aprotic Electrolytes
  • Overview of Theoretical Methods for Electrolytes
  • Organic Carbonate Solvents: Lessons Learned
  • Ether-Based Solvents
  • Conclusions and Future Outlook
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Nonaqueous Electrolytes: Advances in Lithium Salts Wesley A Henderson Introduction Electrolyte Salt Properties Established Salts Electrolyte Characterization Tools Advanced Salts—Fluoroborates and -Phosphates Advanced Salts—Perfl uoroalkylacetates, -Sulfonates, and -Phosphates Advanced Salts—Imides, Methides, and Phosphorylimides Advanced Salts—Organoborates, -Phosphates, and -Aluminates Advanced Salts—Other Anions Adoption Criterion for New Salts Summary References Nonaqueous Electrolytes with Advances in Solvents Makoto Ue, Yukio Sasaki, Yasutaka Tanaka, and Masayuki Morita General Remarks (Makoto Ue) Fluorine-Containing Organic Solvents (Yukio Sasaki) Introduction Fluorinated Lactones Fluorinated Linear Carboxylates Fluorinated Cyclic Carbonates Fluorinated Linear Carbonates Fluorinated Monoethers Fluorinated Diethers Other Fluorinated Solvents Summary Boron-Containing Organic Solvents (Yasutaka Tanaka) Introduction Nature of Boron Compounds Boric Esters Cyclic Boric Esters Other Boron Compounds Summary Phosphorous-Containing Organic Solvents (Masayuki Morita) Introduction Alkylphosphates and Related Compounds as Flame- Retardant Additives/Co-solvents Polymeric Gel Electrolytes Containing Alkylphosphates Summary Sulfur-Containing Organic Solvents (Makoto Ue) Introduction Properties of Organo-Sulfur Compounds Electrolyte Formulation and Cell Performance Summary References Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Advances in Additives Koji Abe General Theory Background of This Chapter Introduction Functional Electrolytes Highly Purifi ed Electrolytes Classifi cation of Additives Additives for Anodes Compounds Containing Unsaturated Carbon–Carbon Bond Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides Oxalates Sulfur-Containing Compounds Halogen-Containing Compounds Phosphorus-Containing Compounds Nitrogen-Containing Compounds Additives for Cathodes Sulfur-Containing Compounds with Active Site Poisoning Function Aromatic Compounds Forming an Electro-Conducting Membrane Additives for Safety Improvement Additives for Overcharge Prevention Nonfl ammable Solvents and Additives Others Miscellaneous Additives for Wettability Improvement Additives for Corrosion Inhibition Lithium Salts Future Prospects References Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids for Lithium Secondary Batteries Hajime Matsumoto Introduction Research and Development of Ionic Liquids for Battery Electrolytes During the Past Decade Conventional Ionic Liquids Composed of [Tf N]− and [BF ]− New Ionic Liquids Composed of New Anions Developed During the Past Decade Application of ILs in Lithium Battery Systems During the Past Decade Conventional ILs Composed of [Tf N]− and [BF ]− New ILs Composed of New Anions Thermal Stability of ILs Summary References Interphases Between Electrolytes and Anodes in Li-Ion Battery Mengqing Xu, Lidan Xing, and Weishan Li Background Introduction: Signifi cance in Understanding of Interphases and Challenges Signifi cance of Interphase in Li-Ion Batteries Symbolic Signifi cance: PC–EC Disparity State of the History (Before ) -D vs -D Formation Mechanism Extension from Li Metal Chemical Ingredients New Insights Achieved Since Chemistry Formation Mechanism Properties of Interphases Tailoring a Desired Interphase Other Anodes: New Challenges from Alloy Anodes (Si, Sn) Summary References On the Surface Chemistry of Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Susai Francis Amalraj, Ronit Sharabi, Hadar Sclar, and Doron Aurbach Introduction On the Type of Cathode Reactions and the General Effect of the Nature of Cathode Material on Its Surface Chemistry On the Anodic Stability of the Electrolyte Solutions, the Contribution of the Current Collectors and Carbon Black How to Measure Surface Reactions of Cathode Materials and Relevant Composite Electrodes FTIR Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ICP Electron Microscopy Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy A General Presentation of Various Surface Chemical Aspects and Their Demonstration The Effect of Nano-Size On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy, Lithiated Transition Metal Oxide Electrodes, and LiMPO Olivine Cathodes; Some Examples and Introductory Remarks On the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy-Type Cathodes SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition Metal Oxide Spinel Materials SEI-Like Surface Film Formation on Transition Metal Oxide Layered Materials On Surface Structural Changes (Phase Transformation) in the Course of the First Delithiation of Lithiated Transition Metal Cathodes (First Charging Processes) The Effect of Additives on the Surface Chemistry of LixMOy Cathode Materials Coating the Surface of Li–Ni–Co–Mn–O Cathodes in Order to Improve Electrochemical Performance and Stability On the Surface Chemistry of LiMPO -Type Cathodes On the Surface Chemical Aspects of O Cathodes Summary References Tools and Methodologies for the Characterization of Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces Jordi Cabana Introduction Electrical Characterization Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques of Compositional Analysis Thermal Extraction Dissolution Physical Extraction Dynamic Analyses Vibrational Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy UV–Visible Techniques UV–Vis Spectroscopy Ellipsometry X-Ray-Based Techniques X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Grazing Incidence/Exit Spectroscopy and Diffraction Refl ectometry (or Refl ectivity) Neutron-Based Techniques Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Scanning Probe Microscopy Electron Microscopy Spectromicroscopy Outlook References Molecular Modeling of Electrolytes Oleg Borodin Introduction to Molecular Modeling Methodologies Quantum Chemistry Studies of Electrolyte Oxidation Redox Stability and Reactions Absolute and Electrochemical Scales of Electrolyte Redox Stability Calculations of the Electrolyte Oxidation Stability Oxidation Decomposition Products Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Bulk Electrolytes Organic Liquid Electrolytes Modeling of Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Modeling of SEI Components MD Simulations of the Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces Modeling the SEI–Electrolyte Interface References Prediction of Electrolyte and Additive Electrochemical Stabilities Johan Scheers and Patrik Johansson Introduction Aim and Approaches The Computational Aim Experimental Data and Verifi cation Computational Approaches Prediction Put in Practice Solvents Salts Additives Summary and Outlook References Aprotic Electrolytes in Li–Air Batteries Kah Chun Lau, Rajeev S Assary, and Larry A Curtiss Introduction The Li–O Couple in Aprotic Electrolytes Overview of Theoretical Methods for Electrolytes Organic Carbonate Solvents: Lessons Learned Ether-Based Solvents Conclusions and Future Outlook

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