Engineering Electromagnetics by Nathan Ida

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Engineering Electromagnetics by Nathan Ida

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Contents of Engineering Electromagnetics eBook

  • Vector Algebra
  • Introduction
  • Scalars and Vectors
  • Magnitude and Direction of Vectors: The Unit Vector
  • and Components of a Vector
  • Vector Addition and Subtraction
  • Vector Scaling
  • Products of Vectors
  • The Scalar Product
  • The Vector Product
  • Multiple Vector and Scalar Products
  • Definition of Fields
  • Scalar Fields
  • Vector Fields
  • Systems of Coordinates
  • The Cartesian Coordinate System
  • The Cylindrical Coordinate System
  • The Spherical Coordinate System
  • Transformation from Cylindrical to Spherical Coordinates
  • Position Vectors
  • Problems
  • Vector Calculus
  • Introduction
  • Integration of Scalar and Vector Functions
  • Line Integrals
  • Surface Integrals
  • Volume Integrals
  • Differentiation of Scalar and Vector Functions
  • The Gradient of a Scalar Function
  • The Divergence of a Vector Field
  • The Divergence Theorem
  • Circulation of a Vector and the Curl
  • Stokes’ Theorem
  • Conservative and Nonconservative Fields
  • Null Vector Identities and Classification of Vector Fields
  • The Helmholtz Theorem
  • Second-Order Operators
  • Other Vector Identities
  • Problems
  • Coulomb’s Law and the Electric Field
  • Introduction
  • Charge and Charge Density
  • Coulomb’s Law
  • The Electric Field Intensity
  • Electric Fields of Point Charges
  • Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
  • The Electric Flux Density and Electric Flux
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Gauss’s Law and the Electric Potential
  • Introduction
  • The Electrostatic Field: Postulates
  • Gauss’s Law
  • Applications of Gauss’s Law
  • The Electric Potential
  • Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
  • Electric Potential Due to Distributed Charges
  • Calculation of Electric Field Intensity from Potential
  • Materials in the Electric Field
  • Conductors
  • Dielectric Materials
  • Polarization and the Polarization Vector
  • Electric Flux Density and Permittivity
  • Dielectric Strength
  • Interface Conditions
  • Interface Conditions Between Two Dielectrics
  • Interface Conditions Between Dielectrics and Conductors
  • Capacitance
  • The Parallel Plate Capacitor
  • Capacitance of Infinite Structures
  • Connection of Capacitors
  • Energy in the Electrostatic Field: Point and Distributed Charges
  • Energy in the Electrostatic Field: Field Variables
  • Forces in the Electrostatic Field: The Principle of Virtual Work
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Boundary Value Problems: Analytic Methods of Solution
  • Introduction
  • Poisson’s Equation for the Electrostatic Field
  • Laplace’s Equation for the Electrostatic Field
  • Solution Methods
  • Uniqueness of Solution
  • Solution by Direct Integration
  • The Method of Images
  • Separation of Variables: Solution to Laplace’s Equation
  • Experiments: The Method of Images
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Boundary Value Problems: Numerical (Approximate) Methods
  • Introduction
  • A Note on Computer Programs
  • The General Idea of Numerical Solutions
  • The Finite Difference Method: Solution to the Laplace
  • and Poisson Equations
  • The Finite Difference Approximation: First-Order Derivative
  • The Finite Difference Approximation: Second-Order Derivative
  • Implementation
  • Solution to Poisson’s Equation
  • The Method of Moments: An Intuitive Approach
  • The Finite Element Method: Introduction
  • The Finite Element
  • Implementation of the Finite Element Method
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • The Steady Electric Current
  • Introduction
  • Conservation of Charge
  • Conductors, Dielectrics, and Lossy Dielectrics
  • Moving Charges in an Electric Field
  • Convection Current and Convection Current Density
  • Conduction Current and Conduction Current Density
  • Ohm’s Law
  • Power Dissipation and Joule’s Law
  • The Continuity Equation and Kirchhoff’s Current Law
  • Kirchhoff’s Current Law
  • Current Density as a Field
  • Sources of Steady Currents
  • Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
  • Interface Conditions for Current Density
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • The Static Magnetic Field
  • Introduction
  • The Magnetic Field, Magnetic Field Intensity,
  • and Magnetic Flux Density
  • The Biot–Savart Law
  • Applications of the Biot–Savart Law to Distributed Currents
  • Ampere’s Law
  • Magnetic Flux Density and Magnetic Flux
  • Postulates of the Static Magnetic Field
  • Potential Functions
  • The Magnetic Vector Potential
  • The Magnetic Scalar Potential
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Magnetic Materials and Properties
  • Introduction
  • Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • The Magnetic Dipole
  • Magnetization: A Model of Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • Behavior of Magnetic Materials
  • Magnetic Interface Conditions
  • Interface Conditions for the Tangential and Normal
  • Components of the Magnetic Field Intensity H
  • Inductance and Inductors
  • Inductance per Unit Length
  • External and Internal Inductance
  • Energy Stored in the Magnetic Field
  • Magnetostatic Energy in Terms of Fields
  • Magnetic Circuits
  • Forces in the Magnetic Field
  • Principle of Virtual Work: Energy in a Gap
  • Torque
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Faraday’s Law and Induction
  • Introduction
  • Faraday’s Law
  • Lenz’s Law
  • Motional Electromotive Force: The DC Generator
  • Induced emf Due to Transformer Action
  • Combined Motional and Transformer Action
  • Electromotive Force
  • The Alternating Current Generator
  • The Transformer
  • The Ideal Transformer
  • The Real Transformer: Finite Permeability
  • The Real Transformer: Finite Permeability and Flux Leakage
  • Eddy Currents
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Maxwell’s Equations
  • Introduction: The Electromagnetic Field
  • Maxwell’s Equations
  • Maxwell’s Equations in Differential Form
  • Maxwell’s Equations in Integral Form
  • Time-Dependent Potential Functions
  • Scalar Potentials
  • The Magnetic Vector Potential
  • Other Potential Functions
  • Interface Conditions for the Electromagnetic Field
  • Interface Conditions for the Electric Field
  • Interface Conditions for the Magnetic Field
  • Particular Forms of Maxwell’s Equations
  • Time-Harmonic Representation
  • Maxwell’s Equations: The Time-Harmonic Form
  • Source-Free Equations
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Electromagnetic Waves and Propagation
  • Introduction
  • The Wave
  • The Electromagnetic Wave Equation and Its Solution
  • The Time-Dependent Wave Equation
  • Time-Harmonic Wave Equations
  • Solution of the Wave Equation
  • Solution for Uniform Plane Waves
  • The One-Dimensional Wave Equation in Free-Space and Perfect Dielectrics
  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • The Poynting Theorem and Electromagnetic Power
  • The Complex Poynting Vector
  • Propagation of Plane Waves in Materials
  • Propagation of Plane Waves in Lossy Dielectrics
  • Propagation of Plane Waves in Low-Loss Dielectrics
  • Propagation of Plane Waves in Conductors
  • The Speed of Propagation of Waves and Dispersion
  • Polarization of Plane Waves
  • Linear Polarization
  • Elliptical and Circular Polarization
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Reflection and Transmission of Plane Waves
  • Introduction
  • Reflection and Transmission at a General Dielectric Interface:
  • Normal Incidence
  • Reflection and Transmission at an Air-Lossy Dielectric
  • Interface: Normal Incidence
  • Reflection and Transmission at an Air-Lossless Dielectric
  • Interface: Normal Incidence
  • Reflection and Transmission at an Air-Conductor Interface:
  • Normal Incidence
  • Reflection and Transmission at an Interface: Oblique Incidence on a Conductor
  • Oblique Incidence on a Conducting Interface:
  • Perpendicular Polarization
  • Oblique Incidence on a Conducting Interface:
  • Parallel Polarization
  • Oblique Incidence on Dielectric Interfaces
  • Oblique Incidence on a Dielectric Interface: Perpendicular
  • Polarization
  • Oblique Incidence on a Dielectric Interface:
  • Parallel Polarization
  • Brewster’s Angle
  • Total Reflection
  • Reflection and Transmission for Layered Materials at Normal Incidence
  • Applications
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Theory of Transmission Lines
  • Introduction
  • The Transmission Line
  • Transmission Line Parameters
  • Calculation of Line Parameters
  • The Transmission Line Equations
  • Time-Domain Transmission Line Equations
  • Types of Transmission Lines
  • The Lossless Transmission Line
  • The Long Transmission Line
  • The Distortionless Transmission Line
  • The Low-Resistance Transmission Line
  • The Field Approach to Transmission Lines
  • Finite Transmission Lines
  • The Load Reflection Coefficient
  • Line Impedance and the Generalized
  • Reflection Coefficient
  • The Lossless, Terminated Transmission Line
  • The Lossless, Matched Transmission Line
  • The Lossless, Shorted Transmission Line
  • The Lossless, Open Transmission Line
  • The Lossless, Resistively Loaded Transmission Line
  • Power Relations on a General Transmission Line
  • Resonant Transmission Line Circuits
  • Applications
  • Experiment
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • The Smith Chart, Impedance Matching, and Transmission
  • Line Circuits
  • Introduction
  • The Smith Chart
  • The Smith Chart as an Admittance Chart
  • Impedance Matching and the Smith Chart
  • Impedance Matching
  • Stub Matching
  • Quarter-Wavelength Transformer Matching
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Transients on Transmission Lines
  • Introduction
  • Propagation of Narrow Pulses on Finite, Lossless
  • Transmission Lines
  • Propagation of Narrow Pulses on Finite, Distortionless
  • Transmission Lines
  • Transients on Transmission Lines: Long Pulses
  • Transients on Transmission Lines: Finite-Length Pulses
  • Reflections from Discontinuities
  • Transients on Lines with Reactive Loading
  • Capacitive Loading
  • Inductive Loading
  • Initial Conditions on Transmission Lines
  • Experiments
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Waveguides and Resonators
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of a Waveguide
  • Transverse Electromagnetic, Transverse Electric,
  • and Transverse Magnetic Waves
  • Transverse Electromagnetic Waves
  • Transverse Electric (TE) Waves
  • Transverse Magnetic (TM) Waves
  • TE Propagation in Parallel Plate Waveguides
  • TM Propagation in Parallel Plate Waveguides
  • TEM Waves in Parallel Plate Waveguides
  • Rectangular Waveguides
  • TM Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
  • TE Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
  • Attenuation and Losses in Rectangular Waveguides
  • Other Waveguides
  • Cavity Resonators
  • TM Modes in Cavity Resonators
  • TE Modes in Cavity Resonators
  • Energy Relations in a Cavity Resonator
  • Quality Factor of a Cavity Resonator
  • Applications
  • Summary
  • Problems
  • Antennas and Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Introduction
  • Electromagnetic Radiation and Radiation Safety
  • Antennas
  • The Electric Dipole
  • The Near Field
  • The Far Field
  • Properties of Antennas
  • Radiated Power
  • Radiation Resistance
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Radiation Intensity and Average Radiation Intensity
  • Antenna Directivity
  • Antenna Gain and Radiation Efficiency
  • The Magnetic Dipole
  • Near Fields for the Magnetic Dipole
  • Far Fields for the Magnetic Dipole
  • Properties of the Magnetic Dipole
  • Practical Antennas
  • Linear Antennas of Arbitrary Length
  • The Monopole Antenna
  • Antenna Arrays
  • The Two-Element Array
  • The n-Element Linear Array
  • Reciprocity and Receiving Antennas
  • Effective Aperture
  • The Radar
  • Types of Radar
  • Other Antennas
  • Applications
  • Summary
  • Problems

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