English for Research Usage Style and Grammar by Adrian Wallwork

English for Research Usage Style and Grammar by Adrian Wallwork

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Contents of English for Research Usage Style and Grammar

  • Nouns: plurals, countable versus uncountable
  • regular plurals
  • irregular plurals
  • nouns ending in -s
  • nouns indicating a group of people
  • number-verb agreement
  • countable nouns: use with articles
  • singular countable nouns: use with and without
  • a / an in scientific English
  • uncountable nouns: general rules
  • uncountable nouns: using a different word or form
  • uncountable nouns: more details
  • Genitive: the possessive form of nouns
  • position of the ’s with authors and referees
  • theories, instruments etc
  • companies and politicians
  • universities, departments, institutes etc
  • animals
  • genitive with inanimate objects
  • periods of time
  • Inde fi nite article: a / an
  • a versus an: basic rules
  • a versus an: use with acronyms, digits, and symbols
  • a / an versus one
  • a / an versus the: generic versus specific
  • a / an versus the: definitions and statements
  • a / an, the, possessive pronoun: parts of the body
  • De fi nite article: the
  • definite article (the): main usage
  • specific versus general: examples
  • other uses of the definite article
  • Zero article: no article
  • zero article versus definite article (the): main usage
  • other uses of the zero article
  • nationalities, countries, languages
  • zero article and the: contradictory usage in scientific English
  • zero article versus a / an
  • zero article and a / an: contradictory usage in scientific English
  • Quantifiers: any, some, much, many, each, every etc
  • quantifiers used with countable and uncountable nouns
  • any versus some
  • any versus no
  • a little, a few vs little, few
  • much, many, a lot of, and lots of
  • each versus every, every versus any
  • no versus not
  • Relative pronouns: that, which, who, whose
  • that, which, who, whose
  • that versus which and who
  • omission of that, which and who
  • avoiding ambiguity by using a relative clause
  • in preference to the -ing form
  • avoid long and difficult-to-read sentences involving which
  • avoid ambiguity with which
  • Tenses: present, past, future
  • present simple vs present continuous: key rules
  • present perfect: key rules
  • present perfect: problem areas
  • past simple: key rules
  • present simple vs past simple: specifi c rules
  • (aims and methods)
  • present simple, present perfect and simple past:
  • reference to the literature
  • present simple vs past simple: specifi c rules
  • (results and discussion)
  • present perfect vs present perfect continuous
  • past continuous and past perfect vs simple past
  • will
  • Conditional forms: zero, fi rst, second, third
  • zero and first conditional
  • second conditional
  • other uses of would
  • present simple versus would
  • third conditional
  • Passive versus active: impersonal versus
  • personal forms
  • main uses of passive
  • passive better than active: more examples
  • active better than passive
  • ambiguity with passive
  • Imperative, in fi nitive versus gerund (−ing form)
  • imperative
  • infinitive
  • in order to
  • passive infinitive
  • perfect infinitive
  • gerund (−ing form): usage
  • by versus thus + gerund to avoid ambiguity
  • other sources of ambiguity with the gerund
  • replacing an ambiguous gerund with that or which,
  • or with a rearranged phrase
  • verbs that express purpose or appearance + infinitive
  • verbs that require an accusative construction
  • (i e person / thing + infinitive)
  • active and passive form: with and without infinitive
  • active form: verbs not used with the infinitive
  • let and make
  • verbs + gerund, recommend, suggest
  • verbs that take both infinitive and gerund
  • Modal verbs: can, may, could, should, must etc
  • present and future ability and possibility:
  • can versus may
  • impossibility and possibility: cannot versus may not
  • ability: can, could versus be able to, manage, succeed
  • deductions and speculations about the present: must,
  • cannot, should
  • deductions and speculations: could, might (not)
  • present obligations: must, must not, have to, need
  • past obligation: should have + past participle,
  • had to, was supposed to
  • obligation and recommendation: should
  • Link words (adverbs and conjunctions):
  • also, although, but etc
  • about, as far as … is concerned
  • also, in addition, as well, besides, moreover
  • also, as well, too, both, all: use with not
  • although, even though versus even if
  • and, along with
  • as versus as it
  • as versus like (unlike)
  • as, because, due to, for, insofar as, owing to,
  • since, why
  • both … and, either … or
  • e g versus for example
  • e g , i e , etc
  • for this reason versus for this purpose, to this end
  • the former, the latter
  • however, although, but, yet, despite, nevertheless,
  • nonetheless, notwithstanding
  • however versus nevertheless
  • in contrast with vs compared to, by comparison with
  • instead, on the other hand, whereas, on the contrary
  • thus, therefore, hence, consequently, so, thereby
  • omission of words in sentences with and, but, both
  • and or
  • Adverbs and prepositions: already, yet, at, in, of etc
  • above (below), over (under)
  • across, through
  • already, still, yet
  • among, between, from, of (differentiation
  • and selection)
  • at, in, to (location, state, change)
  • at, in and on (time)
  • at, to (measurement, quality)
  • before, after, beforehand, afterwards,
  • first (time sequences)
  • beside, next to, near (to), close to (location)
  • by and from (cause, means and origin)
  • by, in, of (variations)
  • by and within (time)
  • by now, for now, for the moment, until now, so far
  • during, over and throughout (time)
  • for, since, from (time)
  • in, now, currently, at the moment
  • in, inside, within (location)
  • of and with (material, method, agreement)
  • Sentence length, conciseness, clarity and ambiguity
  • maximum two ideas per sentence
  • put information in chronological order, particularly
  • in the methods section
  • avoid parenthetical phrases
  • avoid redundancy
  • prefer verbs to nouns
  • use adjectives rather than nouns
  • be careful of use of personal pronouns: you, one, he,
  • she, they
  • essential and non-essential use of: we, us, our
  • avoid informal words and contractions
  • emphatic do / does, giving emphasis
  • with auxiliary verbs
  • ensuring consistency throughout a manuscript
  • translating concepts that only exist in your
  • country / language
  • always use the same key words: repetition of words
  • is not a problem
  • avoid ambiguity when using the former /
  • the latter, which, and pronouns
  • avoid ambiguity when using as, in accordance with,
  • according to
  • when expressing a negative concept using a negation
  • Word order: nouns and verbs
  • put the subject before the verb and as near as possible
  • to the beginning of the phrase
  • decide what to put first in a sentence: alternatives
  • do not delay the subject
  • avoid long subjects that delay the main verb
  • inversion of subject and verb
  • inversion of subject and verb with only, rarely,
  • seldom etc
  • inversions with so, neither, nor
  • put direct object before indirect object
  • phrasal verbs
  • noun + noun and noun + of + noun constructions
  • strings of nouns: use prepositions where possible
  • deciding which noun to put first in strings of nouns
  • position of prepositions with which, who and where
  • Word order: adverbs
  • frequency + also, only, just, already
  • probability
  • manner
  • time
  • first(ly), second(ly) etc
  • adverbs with more than one meaning
  • shift the negation word (no, not, nothing etc ) to near
  • the beginning of the phrase
  • Word order: adjectives and past participles
  • adjectives
  • multiple adjectives
  • ensure it is clear which noun an adjective refers to
  • past participles
  • Comparative and superlative: -er , -est , irregular forms
  • form and usage
  • position
  • comparisons of (in)equality
  • the more … the more
  • Measurements: abbreviations, symbols, use of articles
  • abbreviations and symbols: general rules
  • spaces with symbols and abbreviations
  • use of articles: a / an versus the
  • expressing measurements: adjectives,
  • nouns and verbs
  • Numbers: words versus numerals, plurals, use of articles,
  • dates etc
  • words versus numerals: basic rules
  • words versus numerals: additional rules
  • when – can be used as digits rather than words
  • making numbers plural
  • singular or plural with numbers
  • abbreviations, symbols, percentages, fractions,
  • and ordinals
  • ranges of values and use of hyphens
  • definite article (the) and zero article with numbers
  • and measurements
  • definite article (the) and zero article with months,
  • years, decades and centuries
  • once, twice versus one time, two times
  • ordinal numbers, abbreviations
  • and Roman numerals
  • dates
  • Acronyms: usage, grammar, plurals, punctuation
  • main usage
  • foreign acronyms
  • grammar
  • punctuation
  • Abbreviations and Latin words: usage meaning,
  • punctuation
  • usage
  • punctuation
  • abbreviations found in bibliographies
  • common Latin expressions and abbreviations
  • Capitalization: headings, dates, fi gures etc
  • titles and section headings
  • days, months, countries, nationalities,
  • natural languages
  • academic titles, degrees, subjects (of study),
  • departments, institutes, faculties, universities
  • figure, table, section etc ; step, phase, stage etc
  • keywords
  • acronyms
  • euro, the internet
  • Punctuation: apostrophes, colons, commas etc
  • apostrophes (’)
  • colons (:)
  • commas (,): usage
  • commas (,): non usage
  • dashes (_)
  • hyphens (-): part
  • hyphens (-): part
  • parentheses ( )
  • periods ( )
  • quotation marks (‘ ’)
  • semicolons (;)
  • bullets: round, numbered, ticked
  • bullets: consistency and avoiding redundancy
  • Referring to the literature
  • most common styles
  • common dangers
  • punctuation: commas and semicolons
  • punctuation: parentheses
  • et al
  • Figures and tables: making reference, writing captions
  • and legends
  • figures, tables
  • legends
  • referring to other parts of the manuscript
  • Spelling: rules, US versus GB, typical typos
  • rules
  • some differences in British (GB) and American
  • (US) spelling, by type
  • some differences in British (GB) and American
  • (US) spelling, alphabetically
  • misspellings that spell-checking software
  • does not find
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