Fiber-Optic Communication Systems by Govind P. Agrawal

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Fiber-Optic Communication Systems

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Contents of Fiber-Optic Communication Systems

  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective
  • Need for Fiber-Optic Communications
  • Evolution of Lightwave Systems
  • Basic Concepts
  • Analog and Digital Signals
  • Channel Multiplexing
  • Modulation Formats
  • Optical Communication Systems
  • Lightwave System Components
  • Optical Fibers as a Communication Channel
  • Optical Transmitters
  • Optical Receivers
  • Problems
  • References
  • Optical Fibers
  • Geometrical-Optics Description
  • Step-Index Fibers
  • Graded-Index Fibers
  • Wave Propagation
  • Maxwell’s Equations
  • Fiber Modes
  • Single-Mode Fibers
  • Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers
  • Group-Velocity Dispersion
  • Material Dispersion
  • Waveguide Dispersion
  • Higher-Order Dispersion
  • Polarization-Mode Dispersion
  • Dispersion-Induced Limitations
  • Basic Propagation Equation
  • Chirped Gaussian Pulses
  • Limitations on the Bit Rate
  • Fiber Bandwidth
  • Fiber Losses
  • Attenuation Coefficient
  • Material Absorption
  • Rayleigh Scattering
  • Waveguide Imperfections
  • Nonlinear Optical Effects
  • Stimulated Light Scattering
  • Nonlinear Phase Modulation
  • Four-Wave Mixing
  • Fiber Manufacturing
  • Design Issues
  • Fabrication Methods
  • Cables and Connectors
  • Problems
  • References
  • Optical Transmitters
  • Basic Concepts
  • Emission and Absorption Rates
  • p–n Junctions
  • Nonradiative Recombination
  • Semiconductor Materials
  • Light-Emitting Diodes
  • Power–Current Characteristics
  • LED Spectrum
  • Modulation Response
  • LED Structures
  • Semiconductor Lasers
  • Optical Gain
  • Feedback and Laser Threshold
  • Laser Structures
  • Control of Longitudinal Modes
  • Distributed Feedback Lasers
  • Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers
  • Tunable Semiconductor Lasers
  • Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
  • Laser Characteristics
  • CW Characteristics
  • Small-Signal Modulation
  • Large-Signal Modulation
  • Relative Intensity Noise
  • Spectral Linewidth
  • Transmitter Design
  • Source–Fiber Coupling
  • Driving Circuitry
  • Optical Modulators
  • Optoelectronic Integration
  • Reliability and Packaging
  • Optical Receivers
  • Basic Concepts
  • Detector Responsivity
  • Rise Time and Bandwidth
  • Common Photodetectors
  • p–n Photodiodes
  • p–i–n Photodiodes
  • Avalanche Photodiodes
  • MSM Photodetectors
  • Receiver Design
  • Front End
  • Linear Channel
  • Decision Circuit
  • Integrated Receivers
  • Receiver Noise
  • Noise Mechanisms
  • p–i–n Receivers
  • APD Receivers
  • Receiver Sensitivity
  • Bit-Error Rate
  • Minimum Received Power
  • Quantum Limit of Photodetection
  • Sensitivity Degradation
  • Extinction Ratio
  • Intensity Noise
  • Timing Jitter
  • Receiver Performance
  • Lightwave Systems
  • System Architectures
  • Point-to-Point Links
  • Distribution Networks
  • Local-Area Networks
  • Design Guidelines
  • Loss-Limited Lightwave Systems
  • Dispersion-Limited Lightwave Systems
  • Power Budget
  • Rise-Time Budget
  • Long-Haul Systems
  • Performance-Limiting Factors
  • Terrestrial Lightwave Systems
  • Undersea Lightwave Systems
  • Sources of Power Penalty
  • Modal Noise
  • Dispersive Pulse Broadening
  • Mode-Partition Noise
  • Frequency Chirping
  • Reflection Feedback and Noise
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Optical Amplifiers
  • Basic Concepts
  • Gain Spectrum and Bandwidth
  • Gain Saturation
  • Amplifier Noise
  • Amplifier Applications
  • Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
  • Amplifier Design
  • Amplifier Characteristics
  • Pulse Amplification
  • System Applications
  • Raman Amplifiers
  • Raman Gain and Bandwidth
  • Amplifier Characteristics
  • Amplifier Performance
  • Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
  • Pumping Requirements
  • Gain Spectrum
  • Simple Theory
  • Amplifier Noise
  • Multichannel Amplification
  • Distributed-Gain Amplifiers
  • System Applications
  • Optical Preamplification
  • Noise Accumulation in Long-Haul Systems
  • ASE-Induced Timing Jitter
  • Accumulated Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects
  • WDM-Related Impairments
  • Dispersion Management
  • Need for Dispersion Management
  • Precompensation Schemes
  • Prechirp Technique
  • Novel Coding Techniques
  • Nonlinear Prechirp Techniques
  • Postcompensation Techniques
  • Dispersion-Compensating Fibers
  • Optical Filters
  • Fiber Bragg Gratings
  • Uniform-Period Gratings
  • Chirped Fiber Gratings
  • Chirped Mode Couplers
  • Optical Phase Conjugation
  • Principle of Operation
  • Compensation of Self-Phase Modulation
  • Phase-Conjugated Signal
  • Long-Haul Lightwave Systems
  • Periodic Dispersion Maps
  • Simple Theory
  • Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
  • High-Capacity Systems
  • Broadband Dispersion Compensation
  • Tunable Dispersion Compensation
  • Higher-Order Dispersion Management
  • PMD Compensation
  • Multichannel Systems
  • WDM Lightwave Systems
  • High-Capacity Point-to-Point Links
  • Wide-Area and Metro-Area Networks
  • Multiple-Access WDM Networks
  • WDM Components
  • Tunable Optical Filters
  • Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
  • Add–Drop Multiplexers
  • Star Couplers
  • Wavelength Routers
  • Optical Cross-Connects
  • Wavelength Converters
  • WDM Transmitters and Receivers
  • System Performance Issues
  • Heterowavelength Linear Crosstalk
  • Homowavelength Linear Crosstalk
  • Nonlinear Raman Crosstalk
  • Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
  • Cross-Phase Modulation
  • Four-Wave Mixing
  • Other Design Issues
  • Time-Division Multiplexing
  • Channel Multiplexing
  • Channel Demultiplexing
  • System Performance
  • Subcarrier Multiplexing
  • Analog SCM Systems
  • Digital SCM Systems
  • Multiwavelength SCM Systems
  • Code-Division Multiplexing
  • Direct-Sequence Encoding
  • Spectral Encoding
  • Soliton Systems
  • Fiber Solitons
  • Nonlinear Schr¨odinger Equation
  • Bright Solitons
  • Dark Solitons
  • Soliton-Based Communications
  • Information Transmission with Solitons
  • Soliton Interaction
  • Frequency Chirp
  • Soliton Transmitters
  • Loss-Managed Solitons
  • Loss-Induced Soliton Broadening
  • Lumped Amplification
  • Distributed Amplification
  • Experimental Progress
  • Dispersion-Managed Solitons
  • Dispersion-Decreasing Fibers
  • Periodic Dispersion Maps
  • Design Issues
  • Impact of Amplifier Noise
  • Moment Method
  • Energy and Frequency Fluctuations
  • Timing Jitter
  • Control of Timing Jitter
  • High-Speed Soliton Systems
  • System Design Issues
  • Soliton Interaction
  • Impact of Higher-Order Effects
  • Timing Jitter
  • WDM Soliton Systems
  • Interchannel Collisions
  • Effect of Lumped Amplification
  • Timing Jitter
  • Dispersion Management
  • Coherent Lightwave Systems
  • Basic Concepts
  • Local Oscillator
  • Homodyne Detection
  • Heterodyne Detection
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • Modulation Formats
  • ASK Format
  • PSK Format
  • FSK Format
  • Demodulation Schemes
  • Heterodyne Synchronous Demodulation
  • Heterodyne Asynchronous Demodulation
  • Bit-Error Rate
  • Synchronous ASK Receivers
  • Synchronous PSK Receivers
  • Synchronous FSK Receivers
  • Asynchronous ASK Receivers
  • Asynchronous FSK Receivers
  • Asynchronous DPSK Receivers
  • Sensitivity Degradation
  • Phase Noise
  • Intensity Noise
  • Polarization Mismatch
  • Fiber Dispersion
  • Other Limiting Factors
  • System Performance
  • Asynchronous Heterodyne Systems
  • Synchronous Heterodyne Systems
  • Homodyne Systems
  • Current Status

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