Fundamentals of English Grammar Third Edition by Betty Schrampfer Azar

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Fundamentals of English Grammar

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Contents of English Grammar Fundamentals eBook

  • Chapter 1. PRESENT TlME
  • The simple present and the present progressive
  • Forms of the simple present and the present progressive
  • Frequencyadverbs
  • Final
  • Spelling of final es
  • Non action verbs
  • Present verbs: short answers to yestno questions
  • Chapter 2. PAST TlME
  • Expressing past time: the simple past
  • Forms of the simple past: regular verbs
  • Forms of the simple past: be
  • Regular verbs: pronunciation of ed endings
  • Spelling of ing and ed forms
  • The principal parts of a verb
  • Irregular verbs: a reference list
  • The simple past and the past progressive
  • Forms of the past progressive
  • Expressing past time: using time clauses
  • Expressing past habit: used to
  • Chapter 3. FUTURE TlME
  • Expressing future time: be going to and will
  • Formswithbsgoingto
  • FormswithwiU
  • Sureness about the future
  • Bsgoingtovs wil
  • Expressing the future in time clauses and $ clauses
  • Using the present progressive to express future time
  • Using the simple present to express future time
  • Immediate future: using be about to
  • Parallelverbs
  • Chapter 4. THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT
  • Past participle
  • Forms of the present perfect
  • Meanings of the present perfect
  • Simple past vs present perfect
  • Present perfect progressive
  • kesent perfect progressive vs present perfect
  • Using already, yet, still, and anymore ~
  • Pastperfect
  • Chapter 5. ASKING QUESTIONS
  • Whore why when and what time
  • Questions with who who(m) and what
  • Spoken and written contractions with question words
  • Plural forms of nouns
  • Subjects verbs and objects
  • Objects of prepositions
  • Prepositions of time
  • Word order: place and time
  • Subject verb agreement
  • Using adjectives to describe nouns
  • Using nouns as adjectives
  • Personal pronouns: subjects and objects
  • Possessive nouns
  • Possessive pronouns and adjectives
  • Singular forms of other: another vs the other
  • Plural forms of other: other(s) vs the other(s)
  • Summary of forms of other
  • Chapter 6. MODAL AUXILIARIES
  • The form of modal auxiliaries
  • Expressing ability: can and could
  • Expressing possibility: may and might
  • Expressing permission: may and can
  • Using could to express possibility
  • Polite questions: may I could I can I
  • Expressing advice: should and ought to
  • Expressing advice: had better
  • Expressing necessity: have to haw got to must
  • Expressing lack of necessity: do not haw to
  • Expressing prohibition: must not
  • Making logical conclusions: must
  • Giving instructions: imperative sentences ~ Making suggestions: let’s and why don’t ,I ‘
  • Stating preferences: prefer lliko better would rather
  • Chapter 7. CONNECTING IDEAS
  • Connecting ideas with and
  • Connecting ideas with but and or
  • Chapter 8. COMPARISONS
  • Making comparisons with as as
  • Comparative and superlative
  • Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs Completing a comparative
  • Modifying comparatives Comparisons with less than and not as as
  • Unclear comparisons Using more with nouns ,
  • Repeating a comparative
  • kit Using double comparatives
  • Chapter 9. COUNTINONCOUNT NOUNS AND ARTICLES
  • Noncountnouns
  • Morenoncountnouns
  • Using several, a lot of, manylmuch, and afowla little
  • Nouns that can be count or noncount
  • Using units of measure with noncount nouns ; Guidelines for article usage
  • Using the or with names
  • Capitalization
  • Chapter 10. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
  • Adjective clauses: introduction
  • Using who and whom in adjective clauses
  • Using who who(m) and that in adjective clauses
  • Using which and that in adjective clauses
  • Singular and plural verbs in adjective clauses
  • Using prepositions in adjective clauses
  • Using whose in adjective clauses
  • Chapter 11. GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
  • Verb + gerund
  • Go+ ing
  • Verb+infinitive
  • Verb + gerund or infinitive
  • Preposition + gerund
  • Using by and with to express how something is done
  • Using gerunds as subjects; using it + infinitive
  • Noun clauses: introduction
  • Noun clauses that begin with a question word
  • Noun clauses with who what whose + be
  • Noun clauses that begin with ifor whether
  • Noun clauses that begin with that
  • Other uses of that clauses
  • Substituting so for a that clause in conversational responses
  • Quoted speech
  • Quoted speech vs reported speech
  • Verb forms in reported speech

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