Heat and Mass Transfer Second, revised Edition by Hans Dieter Baehr and Karl Stephan

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Heat and Mass Transfer by H. Dieter and K. Stephan

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Contents of Heat and Mass Transfer eBook

  • Introduction Technical Applications
  • The different types of heat transfer
  • Heat conduction
  • Steady, one-dimensional conduction of heat
  • Convective heat transfer Heat transfer coefficient
  • Determining heat transfer coefficients Dimensionless numbers
  • Thermal radiation
  • Radiative exchange
  • Overall heat transfer
  • The overall heat transfer coefficient
  • Multi-layer walls
  • Overall heat transfer through walls with extended surfaces
  • Heating and cooling of thin walled vessels
  • Heat exchangers
  • Types of heat exchanger and flow configurations
  • General design equations Dimensionless groups
  • Countercurrent and cocurrent heat exchangers
  • Crossflow heat exchangers
  • Operating characteristics of further flow configurations Diagrams
  • The different types of mass transfer
  • Diffusion
  • Composition of mixtures
  • Diffusive fluxes
  • Fick’s law
  • Diffusion through a semipermeable plane Equimolar diffusion
  • Convective mass transfer
  • Mass transfer theories
  • Film theory
  • Boundary layer theory
  • Penetration and surface renewal theories
  • Application of film theory to evaporative cooling
  • Overall mass transfer
  • Mass transfer apparatus
  • Material balances
  • Concentration profiles and heights of mass transfer columns
  • Exercises
  • Heat conduction and mass diffusion
  • The heat conduction equation
  • Derivation of the differential equation for the temperature field
  • The heat conduction equation for bodies with constant
  • material properties
  • Boundary conditions
  • Temperature dependent material properties
  • Similar temperature fields
  • Steady-state heat conduction
  • Geometric one-dimensional heat conduction with heat sources
  • Longitudinal heat conduction in a rod
  • The temperature distribution in fins and pins
  • Fin efficiency
  • Geometric multi-dimensional heat flow
  • Superposition of heat sources and heat sinks
  • Shape factors
  • Transient heat conduction
  • Solution methods
  • The Laplace transformation
  • The semi-infinite solid
  • Heating and cooling with different boundary conditions
  • Two semi-infinite bodies in contact with each other
  • Periodic temperature variations
  • Cooling or heating of simple bodies in one-dimensional heat flow
  • Formulation of the problem
  • Separating the variables
  • Results for the plate
  • Results for the cylinder and the sphere
  • Approximation for large times: Restriction to the first
  • term in the series
  • A solution for small times
  • Cooling and heating in multi-dimensional heat flow
  • Product solutions
  • Approximation for small Biot numbers
  • Solidification of geometrically simple bodies
  • The solidification of flat layers (Stefan problem)
  • The quasi-steady approximation
  • Improved approximations
  • Heat sources
  • Homogeneous heat sources
  • Point and linear heat sources
  • Numerical solutions to heat conduction problems
  • The simple, explicit difference method for transient heat conduction
  • problems
  • The finite difference equation
  • The stability condition
  • Heat sources
  • Discretisation of the boundary conditions
  • The implicit difference method from J Crank and P Nicolson
  • Noncartesian coordinates Temperature dependent material
  • properties
  • The discretisation of the self-adjoint differential operator
  • Constant material properties Cylindrical coordinates
  • Temperature dependent material properties
  • Transient two- and three-dimensional temperature fields
  • Steady-state temperature fields
  • A simple finite difference method for plane, steady-state
  • temperature fields
  • Consideration of the boundary conditions
  • Mass diffusion
  • Remarks on quiescent systems
  • Derivation of the differential equation for the concentration field
  • Simplifications
  • Boundary conditions
  • Steady-state mass diffusion with catalytic surface reaction
  • Steady-state mass diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction
  • Transient mass diffusion
  • Transient mass diffusion in a semi-infinite solid
  • Transient mass diffusion in bodies of simple geometry
  • with one-dimensional mass flow
  • Exercises
  • Convective heat and mass transfer Single phase flow
  • Preliminary remarks: Longitudinal, frictionless flow over a flat plate
  • The balance equations
  • Reynolds’ transport theorem
  • The mass balance
  • Pure substances
  • Multicomponent mixtures
  • The momentum balance
  • The stress tensor
  • Cauchy’s equation of motion
  • The strain tensor
  • Constitutive equations for the solution of the
  • momentum equation
  • The Navier-Stokes equations
  • The energy balance
  • Dissipated energy and entropy
  • Constitutive equations for the solution of the energy equation
  • Some other formulations of the energy equation
  • Summary
  • Influence of the Reynolds number on the flow
  • Simplifications to the Navier-Stokes equations
  • Creeping flows
  • Frictionless flows
  • Boundary layer flows
  • The boundary layer equations
  • The velocity boundary layer
  • The thermal boundary layer
  • The concentration boundary layer
  • General comments on the solution of boundary layer equations
  • Influence of turbulence on heat and mass transfer
  • Turbulent flows near solid walls
  • External forced flow
  • Parallel flow along a flat plate
  • Laminar boundary layer
  • Turbulent flow
  • The cylinder in crossflow
  • Tube bundles in crossflow
  • Some empirical equations for heat and mass transfer in
  • external forced flow
  • Internal forced flow
  • Laminar flow in circular tubes
  • Hydrodynamic, fully developed, laminar flow
  • Thermal, fully developed, laminar flow
  • Heat transfer coefficients in thermally fully developed,
  • laminar flow
  • The thermal entry flow with fully developed velocity
  • profile
  • Thermally and hydrodynamically developing flow
  • Turbulent flow in circular tubes
  • Packed beds
  • Fluidised beds
  • Some empirical equations for heat and mass transfer in flow through channels, packed and fluidised beds
  • Free flow
  • The momentum equation
  • Heat transfer in laminar flow on a vertical wall
  • Some empirical equations for heat transfer in free flow
  • Mass transfer in free flow
  • Overlapping of free and forced flow
  • Compressible flows
  • The temperature field in a compressible flow
  • Calculation of heat transfer
  • Exercises
  • Convective heat and mass transfer Flows with phase change
  • Heat transfer in condensation
  • The different types of condensation
  • Nusselt’s film condensation theory
  • Deviations from Nusselt’s film condensation theory
  • Influence of non-condensable gases
  • Film condensation in a turbulent film
  • Condensation of flowing vapours
  • Dropwise condensation
  • Condensation of vapour mixtures
  • The temperature at the phase interface
  • The material and energy balance for the vapour
  • Calculating the size of a condenser
  • Some empirical equations
  • Heat transfer in boiling
  • The different types of heat transfer
  • The formation of vapour bubbles
  • Bubble frequency and departure diameter
  • Boiling in free flow The Nukijama curve
  • Stability during boiling in free flow
  • Calculation of heat transfer coefficients for boiling in free flow
  • Some empirical equations for heat transfer during nucleate boiling in free flow
  • Two-phase flow
  • The different flow patterns
  • Flow maps
  • Some basic terms and definitions
  • Pressure drop in two-phase flow
  • The different heat transfer regions in two-phase flow
  • Heat transfer in nucleate boiling and convective evaporation
  • Critical boiling states
  • Some empirical equations for heat transfer in two-phase flow
  • Heat transfer in boiling mixtures
  • Exercises
  • Thermal radiation
  • Fundamentals Physical quantities
  • Thermal radiation
  • Emission of radiation
  • Emissive power
  • Spectral intensity
  • Hemispherical spectral emissive power and total intensity
  • Diffuse radiators Lambert’s cosine law
  • Irradiation
  • Absorption of radiation
  • Reflection of radiation
  • Radiation in an enclosure Kirchhoff’s law
  • Radiation from a black body
  • Definition and realisation of a black body
  • The spectral intensity and the spectral emissive power
  • The emissive power and the emission of radiation in a wavelength interval
  • Radiation properties of real bodies
  • Emissivities
  • The relationships between emissivity, absorptivity and reflectivity
  • The grey Lambert radiator
  • Conclusions from Kirchhoff’s law
  • Calculation of absorptivities from emissivities
  • The grey Lambert radiator
  • Emissivities of real bodies
  • Electrical insulators
  • Electrical conductors (metals)
  • Transparent bodies
  • Solar radiation
  • Extraterrestrial solar radiation
  • The attenuation of solar radiation in the earth’s atmosphere
  • Spectral transmissivity
  • Molecular and aerosol scattering
  • Absorption
  • Direct solar radiation on the ground
  • Diffuse solar radiation and global radiation
  • Absorptivities for solar radiation
  • Radiative exchange
  • View factors
  • Radiative exchange between black bodies
  • Radiative exchange between grey Lambert radiators
  • The balance equations according to the net-radiation method
  • Radiative exchange between a radiation source, a radiation receiver and a reradiating wall
  • Radiative exchange in a hollow enclosure with two zones
  • The equation system for the radiative exchange between any number of zones
  • Protective radiation shields
  • Gas radiation
  • Absorption coefficient and optical thickness
  • Absorptivity and emissivity
  • Results for the emissivity
  • Emissivities and mean beam lengths of gas spaces
  • Radiative exchange in a gas filled enclosure
  • Black, isothermal boundary walls
  • Grey isothermal boundary walls
  • Calculation of the radiative exchange in complicated cases
  • Exercises
  • Appendix A: Supplements
  • A Introduction to tensor notation
  • A Relationship between mean and thermodynamic pressure
  • A Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid of constant viscosity in cartesian coordinates
  • A Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid of constant viscosity in cylindrical coordinates
  • A Entropy balance for mixtures
  • A Relationship between partial and specific enthalpy
  • A Calculation of the constants an of a Graetz-Nusselt problem

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