Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering

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Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering

PDF Free Download | Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering by Peter Williams

Contents of Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering

  • Part 1. Measurement in Construction
  • The Role and Purpose of Measurement
  • Measurement
  • Counting bricks
  • Definition
  • Who measures?
  • The end of measurement or a new beginning?
  • Anyone can measure
  • Measurement in the lecture theatre
  • How’s your Latin?
  • Information
  • The Tavistock Report
  • A new business model?
  • Standardised measurement
  • Non‐UK standard methods of measurement
  • The standard method of measurement of building works
  • Common arrangement of work sections
  • RICS new rules of measurement
  • Civil engineering standard method of measurement
  • Method of measurement for highway works
  • Principles of Measurement (International)
  • Bills of quantities
  • Measurement: skill or art?
  • Uses of measurement
  • Risk management
  • The author’s objectives
  • Rationale
  • Notes
  • References
  • Measurement and Design
  • Introduction
  • Design
  • Design process
  • RIBA Plan of Work
  • Design intent
  • Design cost control
  • Measurement
  • BIM
  • Definitions
  • BIM benefits
  • BIM levels
  • BIM awareness
  • Glossary of terms
  • BIM systems
  • BIM quantities
  • Limitations
  • A word of caution
  • On‐screen measurement
  • Software issues
  • Example
  • Using D BIM
  • Notes
  • References
  • Measurement Conventions
  • Traditional conventions
  • Taking off quantities
  • Cut and shuffle
  • Direct billing
  • Item descriptions
  • Standard phraseology
  • D paper‐based drawings
  • Figured dimensions/scaling
  • Digitised measurement
  • Modern conventions
  • Measurement software
  • Electronic communications
  • D or D CAD drawings
  • Digital images
  • Viewing electronic files
  • Calibrating electronic drawings
  • BIM conventions
  • BIM models
  • BIM quantities
  • Quantity extraction
  • Validation of quantities
  • Reading BIM files
  • BIM model output
  • Note
  • References
  • Approaches to Measurement
  • Measurement skills
  • Uses of measurement
  • Pareto principle
  • Measurement documentation
  • Formal bills of quantities
  • Firm bills of quantities
  • Approximate bills of quantities
  • Formal ‘quasi’ bills of quantities
  • Schedule of rates
  • Schedule of works
  • Formal ‘operational’ bills of quantities
  • Informal bills of quantities
  • Builders’ quantities
  • Uses of builders’ quantities
  • Preparation of builders’ quantities
  • Quantities risk transfer
  • Activity schedules
  • Activity schedules generally
  • Preparation of the ‘base’ quantities
  • Advantages of activity schedules
  • Disadvantages of activity schedules
  • Activity schedules under the JCT SBC/Q
  • Activity schedules under the ECC
  • Activity schedules and the contractor’s programme
  • Activity schedule size and scope
  • Price lists
  • Contract sum analyses
  • Schedules of actual cost
  • Daywork schedules
  • Schedule of cost components
  • Notes
  • References
  • Part 2. Measurement Risk
  • New Rules of Measurement: NRM
  • New rules: New approach
  • The status of NRM
  • Professional competence
  • Negligence
  • Pre‐action protocol
  • Structure of NRM
  • Measurement rules
  • Measurement rules for order of cost estimating
  • Measurement rules for cost planning
  • Distinguishing the rules of measurement
  • Types of measurement rules
  • Design cost control: Introduction
  • Symbols, abbreviations and definitions
  • NRM in context
  • Purpose of NRM
  • Design cost control: Techniques
  • Floor area method
  • Functional unit method
  • Elemental method
  • Unit rates and EUR
  • Updating unit rates and other costs to current estimate base date
  • Order of cost estimates
  • Purpose of order of cost estimates
  • Information requirements
  • Constituents of order of cost estimates
  • Facilitating works
  • Building works: Floor area method
  • Building works: Functional unit method
  • Main contractor’s preliminaries
  • Main contractor’s overheads and profit
  • Project/design team fees
  • Other development/project costs Risk
  • Inflation Paragraph
  • Value added tax assessment
  • Other considerations
  • Reporting of order of cost estimates
  • Cost planning
  • Purpose of cost planning
  • Constituents of a cost plan
  • Formal cost planning stages
  • Reviewing and approving cost plans
  • Cost control in procurement
  • Building projects comprising multiple buildings
  • Information requirements for formal cost plans
  • Format, structure and content of elemental cost plans
  • Facilitating works
  • Building works
  • Unit rates used to estimate the cost of building works
  • Updating unit rates and other costs to current estimate base date
  • Main contractor’s preliminaries
  • Main contractor’s overheads and profit
  • Project/design team fees
  • Other development/project costs
  • Risk allowances
  • Inflation
  • VAT assessment
  • Other considerations
  • Reporting of elemental cost plans
  • Part 3. Tabulated rules of measurement for elemental
  • cost planning
  • Introduction
  • Use of tabulated rules of measurement for elemental cost planning
  • Work not covered by the rules of measurement for elemental
  • cost planning
  • Method of coding elemental cost plans
  • Method of coding elemental cost plans for works packages
  • Group elements –
  • Group elements –
  • Note
  • References
  • New Rules of Measurement: NRM
  • Introduction
  • Standard methods of measurement
  • International appeal
  • Rules of measurement
  • Amendments to JCT contracts
  • What is NRM ?
  • Status of NRM
  • Negligence
  • Pre‐action protocol for construction and
  • engineering disputes
  • NRM structure
  • Part 4. general
  • Measurement in context with the Riba Plan of Work
  • and OGC Gateway Process
  • Purpose of NRM
  • Use of NRM
  • Structure of NRM
  • Symbols, abbreviations and definitions
  • Definitions
  • Bill of quantities
  • Daywork
  • Defined provisional sum
  • Design team
  • Director’s adjustment
  • Employer
  • Fixed charge
  • Main contractor
  • Main contract preliminaries
  • Overheads and profit
  • Prime cost sum
  • Provisional quantity
  • Provisional sum
  • Residual risk (or retained risk)
  • Subcontractor
  • Time‐related charge
  • Undefined provisional sum
  • Work package contractor
  • Work package contract preliminaries
  • Part 5. rules for detailed measurement of building works
  • Introduction
  • Purpose of bills of quantities
  • Benefits of BQ
  • Types of BQ
  • Preparation of BQ
  • Composition of BQ
  • Preliminaries
  • Measurement rules for building works
  • Non‐measurable works
  • Risks
  • Overheads and Profit
  • Credits
  • Other considerations
  • Information requirements for measurement
  • Codification of BQ
  • Cost management/control
  • Analysis, collection and storage of cost data
  • Codification of bills of quantities
  • Work breakdown structure
  • Cost breakdown structure
  • BQ Structures
  • NRM Part 6. Tabulated rules of measurement for
  • building works
  • Coding the quantity take‐off
  • NRM coding: practicalities
  • Coding the BQ
  • Coding an elemental BQ
  • Coding a work section BQ
  • Coding a work package BQ
  • Part 7. Tabulated rules of measurement for building works
  • Introduction
  • Use of tabulated rules of measurement for building works
  • Measurement rules for building works
  • Tabulated work sections
  • Changing from SMM to NRM
  • NRM and measurement
  • Phraseology
  • Preliminaries
  • Off‐Site Manufactured Materials, Components or Buildings
  • Demolitions
  • Alterations, Repairs and Conservation
  • Excavating and Filling
  • Ground Remediation and Soil Stabilisation
  • Piling
  • Underpinning
  • Diaphragm Walls and Embedded Retaining Walls
  • In Situ Concrete Works
  • Structural Metalwork
  • Precast/Composite Concrete
  • Suspended Ceilings
  • Drainage Below Ground
  • Builder’s Work in Connection with Mechanical, Electrical
  • and Transportation Installations
  • Notes
  • References
  • Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement
  • Contract neutral
  • National standard neutral
  • Section : Definitions
  • Section : General principles
  • Title application and extent
  • Object of CESMM
  • Objects of the bill of quantities
  • Section : Application of the work classification
  • Item descriptions
  • Mode of description
  • Separate items
  • Units of measurement
  • Measurement rules
  • Definition rules
  • Coverage rules
  • Additional description rules
  • Applicability of rules
  • Section : Coding and numbering of items
  • Coding
  • Item numbers
  • Coding of unclassified items
  • Numbering of items with additional description
  • Section : Preparation of the Bill of Quantities
  • Measurement of completed work
  • Sections of the bill of quantities
  • List of principal quantities
  • Preamble
  • Daywork schedule
  • Work items
  • Grand Summary
  • Section : Completion, pricing and use of the Bill of Quantities
  • Insertion of rates and prices
  • Parts to be totalled
  • Adjustment item
  • Section : Method‐related charges
  • Definitions
  • Insertion by a tenderer
  • Itemisation
  • Description
  • Contractor not bound to adopt method
  • Charges not to be measured
  • Payment
  • Payment when method not adopted
  • Work classification
  • ‘Included’ and ‘excluded’
  • Additional description rules
  • Non‐standard work
  • Class A: General items
  • Contractual requirements
  • Specified requirements
  • Specified requirements: Temporary works
  • Method‐related charges
  • Class B: Ground investigation
  • Class C: Geotechnical and other specialist processes
  • Ground anchors
  • Diaphragm walls
  • Vibroflotation
  • Class D: Demolition and site clearance
  • Site clearance
  • Trees and stumps
  • Buildings and other structures
  • Pipelines
  • Class E: Earthworks
  • Excavation
  • Dredging
  • Filling
  • Water
  • Class F: In situ concrete
  • Class G: Concrete ancillaries
  • Formwork
  • Reinforcement
  • Joints
  • Post‐tensioned prestressing
  • Concrete accessories
  • Class H: Precast concrete
  • Class I: Pipework – pipes
  • Class J: Pipework – fittings and valves
  • Class K: Pipework – Manholes and Pipework Ancillaries
  • Manholes, chambers and gullies
  • Piped french and rubble drains
  • Ducts and metal culverts
  • Crossings and reinstatement
  • Class L: Pipework – supports and protection,
  • ancillaries to laying and excavation
  • Class M: Structural metalwork
  • Class N: Miscellaneous metalwork
  • Class O: Timber
  • Class P: Piles
  • Class Q: Piling ancillaries
  • Class R: Roads and pavings
  • Class S: Rail track
  • Class T: Tunnels
  • Class U: Brickwork, blockwork and masonry
  • Class V: Painting
  • Class W: Waterproofing
  • Class X: Miscellaneous work
  • Open cell block systems
  • Class Y: Sewer and water main renovation and ancillary works
  • Class Z: Simple building works incidental to civil engineering works
  • Notes
  • References
  • Method of Measurement for Highway Works
  • Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works
  • Volume : Model contract document for major works
  • and implementation requirements
  • Volume : Specification for Highway Works
  • Volume : Notes for guidance on the specification for highway works
  • Volume : Highway Construction Details
  • Volume : Bills of quantities for highway works
  • Volume : Contract documents for specialist activities
  • Volume : Departmental standards and advice
  • notes on contract documentation and site supervision
  • Design manual for roads and bridges
  • Highways England procurement
  • Frameworks
  • Early Contractor Involvement (ECI)
  • Design and Build (D&B)
  • Individual (discrete) contracts
  • Managing Agent Contractor (MAC)
  • Private finance
  • Measurement implications of procurement choices
  • Activity schedules
  • Bills of quantities (BQ)
  • Contractual arrangements
  • Specification for Highway Works
  • Introduction
  • Structure of SHW
  • Numbered appendices
  • Contractual issues
  • Method of Measurement for Highway Works
  • MMHW structure and contents
  • Preparation of BQ
  • Definitions
  • General principles
  • Preambles to bill of quantities
  • Chapter IV: Units and method of measurement
  • Series
  • Groups
  • Features
  • Item coverage
  • Written short item coverage
  • Units of measurement
  • Measurement rules
  • Relationship with contract
  • Item descriptions
  • Groups and features
  • Root narratives
  • Item coverage
  • Contractor design
  • Contractor design involvement
  • The Single European Act
  • Barriers to trade
  • Proprietary products
  • SHW Clause
  • Avoiding barriers to trade
  • Contractor design elements
  • Forms of construction
  • Technical approval of the design
  • Contractual implications of contractor design
  • Measurement and billing of contractor‐designed elements
  • Designated outline
  • Proprietary manufactured structures
  • Structures where there is a choice of designs
  • Proprietary manufactured structural elements
  • Measurement of highway works
  • Series : Preliminaries
  • Itemisation of preliminaries
  • Pricing and interim payment
  • Special preliminaries
  • Series : Earthworks
  • Classification of materials
  • Principles of measurement
  • Earthworks outline
  • Earthworks boundaries
  • Structures
  • Earthworks within designated outlines
  • Dealing with water
  • Capping layer
  • Surcharge
  • Extra over
  • Hard material
  • Soft spots
  • Deposition and compaction of fill
  • Imported fill
  • Disposal
  • Series : Drainage and service ducts
  • Principles of measurement
  • Earthworks outline
  • Types of pavement
  • Tabulated billing
  • Drainage and service ducts
  • Drainage and service ducts in structures
  • Filter drains
  • Measurement of drains, sewers, piped culverts, etc
  • Adjustment items
  • Chambers and gullies
  • Headwalls and outfall works
  • Soft spots
  • Extra over
  • Dealing with water
  • Hard material
  • Series : Piling and embedded retaining walls
  • Piling plant
  • Cast‐in‐place piles
  • Embedded retaining walls
  • Series : Structural concrete
  • In situ concrete
  • Formwork
  • Series : Accommodation works, works for
  • statutory undertakers, provisional sums and prime cost items
  • Accommodation works
  • Works for statutory undertakers
  • Provisional sums, etc
  • Other works
  • Building work
  • Other civil engineering work
  • Notes
  • References
  • Principles of Measurement (International)
  • Introduction
  • A word of warning
  • POM(I) and computerised measurement
  • Structure
  • Section GP: General Principles
  • GP : Principles of measurement
  • GP : Bills of quantities
  • GP : Measurement
  • GP : Items to be fully inclusive
  • GP : Description of items
  • GP : Work to be executed by a specialist nominated by the employer
  • GP : Goods, materials or services to be provided by
  • a merchant or tradesman nominated by the employer
  • GP : work to be executed by a government or public authority
  • GP : Dayworks
  • GP : Contingencies
  • Section A: General requirements
  • A : Conditions of contract
  • A : Specification
  • A : Restrictions
  • A : Contractor’s administrative arrangements
  • A : Constructional plant
  • A : Employer’s facilities
  • A : Contractor’s facilities
  • A : Temporary works
  • A : Sundry items
  • Section B: Site work
  • B –B : Site investigation
  • B : Site preparation
  • B : Demolitions and alterations
  • B : Shoring
  • B : Underpinning
  • B : Earthworks generally
  • B : Excavation
  • B : Dredging
  • B –B : Piling
  • B : Drainage
  • B –B : External works
  • B : Railway work
  • B –B : Tunnelling
  • Section C: Concrete work
  • Section D: Masonry
  • Section E: Metalwork
  • Section F: Woodwork
  • Section G: Thermal and moisture protection
  • Section H: Doors and windows
  • Section J: Finishes
  • Section K: Accessories
  • Section L: Equipment
  • Section M: Furnishings
  • Section N: Special construction
  • Section P: Conveying systems
  • Section Q: Mechanical engineering installations
  • Section R: Electrical engineering installations
  • Notes
  • References
  • Part 8. Measurement Risk in Contract Control
  • Contract Control Strategies
  • Financial control
  • The role of measurement
  • Measurement risk
  • Measuring the quantities of work done
  • Admeasurement and remeasurement
  • Lump sum contracts
  • Measure and value contracts
  • Cost reimbursement contracts
  • Provisional quantities and provisional sums
  • Measuring variations to the contract
  • Preparing the contractor’s cost–value reconciliation
  • Physical measurement
  • Conducting a site measure
  • Site measurement of specialist work
  • Notes
  • References
  • Measurement Claims
  • Claims
  • Definition of ‘claims’
  • Classification of claims
  • Measurement claims
  • Extra work
  • Are quantities included in the contract?
  • Lump sum versus measure and value contracts
  • Departures from the method of measurement
  • Priority of documents
  • Non‐compliant item descriptions
  • Errors in bills of quantities
  • JCT
  • Engineering and construction contract
  • Infrastructure conditions of contract
  • FIDIC
  • Procurement issues
  • Note
  • References
  • Final Accounts
  • Purpose
  • Forms of contract
  • JCT SBC/Q
  • Engineering and Construction Contract
  • ICC: measurement version
  • FIDIC
  • Final account statements
  • Final certificate
  • Lump sum contracts
  • The contract bills
  • The contract sum
  • Changes in quantities
  • Variations
  • Daywork
  • Provisional sums
  • Provisional quantities
  • Measure and value contracts
  • Daywork accounts
  • ‘Final accounts’ under the ECC
  • ECC Options A and B
  • ECC Options C and D
  • ECC Option E
  • ECC Short Contract
  • Defined Cost
  • SCC or SSCC
  • The fee
  • Compensation events
  • Part 9. Measurement Case Studies
  • New Rules of Measurement: NRM
  • Project details
  • Accommodation
  • Gross internal floor area
  • Calculating GIFA
  • Special design features
  • GIFA measurement rules
  • Roof
  • Works cost estimate
  • New Rules of Measurement: NRM
  • Excavation in unstable water‐bearing ground
  • SMM rules
  • NRM rules
  • NRM measurement issues
  • Possible approaches to NRM
  • Site dewatering
  • Earthwork support
  • Worked example
  • NRM Director’s adjustment
  • Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement
  • Canal aqueduct
  • Construction method
  • Ground anchors
  • Commencing surface
  • Measurement
  • Method of Measurement for Highway Works
  • Measurement and billing of proprietary manufactured structures
  • Billing of items
  • Measurement
  • Tender stage
  • Measurement and billing of structures where there is a choice of designs
  • Billing of items
  • Measurement
  • Tender stage
  • Measurement of proprietary manufactured structural elements
  • Billing of items
  • Measurement
  • Tender stage
  • Principles of Measurement (International)
  • Underpinning
  • Measurement rules
  • Itemisation
  • Rule B
  • Working space
  • Dimensions
  • Billing
  • Footnote
  • Builders’ Quantities
  • Lift pit
  • Take‐off list
  • Preparing the quantities
  • Quantities comparison
  • Software

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