Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition Gilbert W Castellan

Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition Gilbert W Castellan

PDF Free Download | Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition by Gilbert W Castellan

Contents of Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition Gilbert W Castellan

  • Some Fundamental Chemical Concepts
  • Introduction
  • The kinds of matter
  • The kinds of substances
  • Atomic and molar masses
  • Symbols Formulas
  • The mole
  • Chemical equations
  • The International System of Units, SI
  • Empirical Properties of Gases
  • Boyle’s law; Charles’s law
  • Molar mass of a gas Avogadro’s law; The ideal gas law
  • The equation of state; Extensive and intensive properties
  • Properties of the ideal gas
  • Determination of molar masses of gases and volatile substances
  • Mixtures; Composition variables
  • Equations of state for a gas mixture; Dalton’s law
  • The partial-pressure concept
  • The barometric distribution law
  • Real Gases
  • Deviations from ideal behavior
  • Modifying the ideal gas equation; The van der Waals equation
  • Implications of the van der Waals equation
  • The isotherms of a real gas
  • Continuity of states
  • The isotherms of the van der Waals equation
  • The critical state
  • The law of corresponding states
  • Other equations of state
  • The Structure of Gases
  • Kinetic theory of gases; Fundamental assumptions
  • Calculation of the pressure of a gas
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressures
  • Distributions and distribution functions
  • The Maxwell distribution
  • Mathematical interlude
  • Evaluation of A and f
  • Calculation of average values using the Maxwell distribution
  • The Maxwell distribution as an energy distribution
  • Average values of individual components; Equipartition of
  • energy
  • Equipartition of energy and quantization
  • Calculation of vibrational heat capacity
  • The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law
  • Experimental verification of the Maxwell distribution law
  • Some Properties of liquids and Solids
  • Condensed phases
  • Coefficients of thermal expansion and compressibility
  • Heats of fusion; Vaporization; Sublimation
  • Vapor pressure
  • Other properties of liquids
  • Review of structural differences between solids, liquids, and gases
  • The laws of Thermodynamics: Generalities and the
  • Zeroth law
  • Kinds of energy and the first law of thermodynamics
  • Restrictions on the conversion of energy from one form to another
  • The second law of thermodynamics
  • The Zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • Thermometry
  • Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics;
  • Thermochemistry
  • Thermodynamic terms: Definitions
  • Work and heat
  • Expansion work
  • Work of compression
  • Maximum and minimum quantities of work
  • Reversible and irreversible transformations
  • Energy and the first law of thermodynamics
  • Properties of the energy
  • Mathematical interlude; Exact and inexact differentials
  • Changes in energy in relation to changes in properties of the system
  • Changes in state at constant volume
  • Measurement of (aUlaVh; Joule’s experiment
  • Changes in state at constant pressure
  • The relation between Cp and Cv
  • The measurement of (aHlaph; Joule-Thomson experiment
  • Adiabatic changes in state
  • A note about problem working
  • Application of the first law of thermodynamics to chemical reactions The heat of reaction
  • The formation reaction
  • Conventional values of molar enthalpies
  • The determination of heats of formation
  • Sequences of reactions; Hess’s law
  • Heats of solution and dilution
  • Heats of reaction at constant volume
  • Dependence of the heat of reaction on temperature
  • Bond enthalpies
  • Calorimetric measurements
  • Introduction to the Second law of Thermodynamics
  • General remarks
  • The Carnot cycle
  • The second law of thermodynamics
  • Characteristics of a reversible cycle
  • A perpetual-motion machine of the second kind
  • The efficiency of heat engines
  • Another impossible engine
  • The thermodynamic temperature scale
  • Retrospection
  • Carnot cycle with an ideal gas
  • The Carnot refrigerator
  • The heat pump
  • Definition of entropy
  • General proof
  • The Clausius inequality
  • Properties of the Entropy and the Third law of
  • Thermodynamics
  • The properties of entropy
  • Conditions of thermal and mechanical stability of a system
  • Entropy changes in isothermal transformations
  • Mathematical interlude More properties of exact differentials
  • The cyclic rule
  • Entropy changes in relation to changes in the state variables
  • Entropy as a function of temperature and volume
  • Entropy as a function of temperature and pressure
  • The temperature dependence of the entropy
  • Entropy changes in the ideal gas
  • The third law of thermodynamics
  • Entropy changes in chemical reactions
  • Entropy and probability
  • General form for omega
  • The energy distribution
  • Entropy of mixing and exceptions to the third law of thermodynamics
  • Spontaneity and Equilibrium
  • The general conditions for equilibrium and for spontaneity
  • Conditions for equilibrium and spontaneity under constraints
  • Recollection
  • Driving forces for natural changes
  • The fundamental equations of thermodynamics
  • The thermodynamic equation of state
  • The properties of A
  • The properties of G
  • The Gibbs energy of real gases
  • Temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy
  • Systems of Variable Composition; Chemical Equilibrium
  • The fundamental equation
  • The Gibbs energy of a mixture
  • The chemical potential of a pure ideal gas
  • Chemical potential of an ideal gas in a mixture of ideal gases
  • Gibbs energy and entropy of mixing
  • Chemical equilibrium in a mixture
  • The general behavior of Gas a function of
  • Chemical equilibrium in a mixture of ideal gases
  • Chemical equilibrium in a mixture of real gases
  • The equilibrium constants, Kx and Kc
  • Standard Gibbs energies of formation
  • The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant
  • Equilibria between ideal gases and pure condensed phases
  • The LeChatelier principle
  • Equilibrium constants from cal fimetric measurements The
  • third law in its historical context
  • Chemical reactions and the entropy of the universe
  • Coupled reactions
  • Dependence of the other thermodynamic functions on composition
  • Partial molar quantities and additivity rules
  • The Gibbs-Duhem equation
  • Partial molar quantities in mixtures of ideal gases
  • Differential heat of solution
  • Phase Equilibrium in Simple Systems; The Phase Rule
  • The equilibrium condition
  • Stability of the phases of a pure substance
  • Pressure dependence of f L versus T curves
  • The Clapeyron equation
  • The phase diagram
  • The integration of the Clapeyron equation
  • Effect of pressure on the vapor pressure
  • The phase rule
  • The problem of components
  • I The Ideal Solution and Colligative Properties
  • Kinds of solutions
  • Definition of the ideal solution
  • Analytical form of the chemical potential in ideal liquid
  • solutions
  • Chemical potential of the solute in a binary ideal solution;
  • Application of the Gibbs-Duhem equation
  • Colligative properties
  • The freezing-point depression
  • Solubility
  • Elevation of the boiling point
  • Osmotic pressure
  • More Than One Volatile Component; The Ideal Dilute
  • Solution
  • General characteristics of the ideal solution
  • The chemical potential in ideal solutions
  • Binary solutions
  • The lever rule
  • Changes in state as the pressure is reduced isothermally
  • Temperature-composition diagrams
  • Changes in state with increase in temperature
  • Fractional distillation
  • Azeotropes
  • The ideal dilute solution
  • The chemical potentials in the ideal dilute solution
  • Henry’s law and the solubility of gases
  • Distribution of a solute between two solvents
  • Chemical equilibrium in the ideal solution
  • Equilibria between Condensed Phases
  • Liquid-liquid equilibria
  • Distillation of partially miscible and immiscible liquids
  • Solid-liquid equilibria; The simple eutectic diagram
  • Freezing-point diagram with compound formation
  • Compounds having incongruent melting points
  • Miscibility in the solid state
  • Freezing-point elevation
  • Partial miscibility in the solid state
  • Gas-solid equilibria; Vapor pressure of salt hydrates
  • Systems of three components
  • Solubility of salts; Common-ion effect
  • Double-salt formation
  • The method of “wet residues”
  • Equilibria in Nonideal Systems
  • The concept of activity
  • The rational system of activities
  • Colligative properties
  • The practical system
  • Activities and reaction equilibrium
  • Activities in electrolytic solutions
  • The Debye-Huckel theory of the structure of dilute ionic solutions
  • Equilibria in ionic solutions
  • Equilibria in Electrochemical Cells
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • The chemical potential of charged species
  • Cell diagrams
  • The Daniell cell
  • Gibbs energy and the cell potential
  • The N ernst equation
  • The hydrogen electrode
  • Electrode potentials
  • Temperature dependence of the cell potential
  • Kinds of electrodes
  • Equilibrium constants from standard half-cell potentials
  • Significance of the half-cell potential
  • The measurement of cell potentials
  • Reversibility
  • The determination of a half-cell
  • The determination of activities and activity coefficients from cell potentials
  • Concentration cells
  • Technical electrochemical processes
  • Electrochemical cells as power sources
  • Two practical power sources
  • Surface Phenomena
  • Surface energy and surface tension
  • Magnitude of surface tension
  • Measurement of surface tension
  • Thermodynamic formulation
  • Capillary rise and capillary depression
  • Properties of very small particles
  • Bubbles; Sessile drops
  • Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces
  • Surface tension and adsorption
  • Surface films
  • Adsorption on solids
  • Physical and chemisorption
  • The Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET) isotherm
  • Electrical phenomena at interfaces; The double layer
  • Electrokinetic effects
  • Colloids
  • Colloidal electrolytes; Soaps and detergents
  • Emulsions and foams
  • The Structure of Matter
  • Introduction
  • Nineteenth century
  • The earthquake
  • Discovery of the electron
  • Positive rays and isotopes
  • Radioactivity
  • Alpha-ray scattering
  • Radiation and matter
  • The photoelectric effect
  • Bohr’s model of the atom
  • Particles and Louis de Broglie
  • The classical wave equation
  • The Schrodinger equation
  • The Interpretation of I/J
  • Retrospection
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanical Principles
  • Introduction
  • Postulates of the quantum mechanics
  • Mathematical interlude: Operator algebra
  • The Schrodinger equation
  • The eigenvalue spectrum
  • Expansion theorem
  • Concluding remarks on the general equations
  • The Quantum Mechanics of Some Simple Systems
  • Introduction
  • The free particle
  • Particle in a “box”
  • The uncertainty principle
  • The harmonic oscillator
  • Multidimensional problems
  • The two-body problem
  • The rigid rotor
  • The Hydrogen Atom
  • The central-field problem
  • The hydrogen atom
  • Significance of the quantum numbers in the hydrogen atom
  • Probability distribution of the electron cloud in the hydrogen atom
  • Electron spin and the magnetic properties of atoms
  • The structure of complex atoms
  • Some general trends in the periodic system
  • The Covalent Bond
  • General remarks
  • The electron pair
  • The hydrogen molecule; Valence bond method
  • The covalent bond
  • Overlap and directional character of the covalent bond
  • Molecular geometry
  • Structures with multiple bonds
  • Structures involving two double bonds or a triple bond
  • Bond order and bond length
  • The covalent bond in elements of the second and higher periods
  • Molecular energy levels
  • Wave functions and symmetry
  • Mathematical interlude
  • The water molecule (group CZv): Example
  • Representations of a group
  • Reducible representations; The orthogonality theorem
  • Atomic Spectroscopy
  • Spectral regions
  • Basic spectroscopic experiments
  • Origins of spectra
  • Light absorption; Beer’s law
  • Theory of atomic spectra
  • Quantum numbers in multielectron atoms
  • Atomic spectroscopy; Term symbols
  • Atoms with closed shells
  • Obtaining term symbols from the electron configuration
  • Examples of atomic spectra
  • The magnetic properties of atoms
  • X-ray spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
  • X-ray microanalysis with the electron probe
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Molecular Spectroscopy
  • Nuclear motions; Rotation and vibration
  • Rotations
  • The rotational spectrum
  • Vibrations
  • The vibration-rotation spectrum
  • Rotational and vibration-rotation spectra of polyatomic molecules
  • Applications of infrared spectroscopy
  • Raman effect
  • Electronic spectra
  • Electronic spectra of polyatomic molecules
  • Quantum mechanical description of time-dependent systems
  • Variation in the state of a system with time
  • Selection rules for the harmonic oscillator
  • Selection rules and symmetry
  • Selection rules for the hydrogen atom
  • Selection rules for polyatomic molecules
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Introduction
  • Polarization in a dielectric
  • Molar polarization
  • Intermolecular forces
  • Interaction energy and the van der Waals “a”
  • Laws of interaction
  • Comparison of the contributions to the interaction energy
  • The hydrogen bond
  • Structure of Solids
  • The structural distinction between solids and liquids
  • An empirical classification of solid types
  • Geometrical requirements in the close-packed structures
  • Geometric requirements in covalent crystals
  • The symmetry of crystals
  • The crystal classes
  • Symmetry in the atomic pattern
  • The designation of crystal planes and faces
  • The x-ray examination of crystals
  • Debye-Scherrer (powder) method
  • Intensities and structure determination
  • X-ray diffraction in liquids
  • Electronic Structure and Macroscopic Properties
  • Preliminary remarks
  • Cohesive energy in ionic crystals
  • The electronic structure of solids
  • Conductors and insulators
  • Ionic crystals
  • Semiconductors
  • Cohesive energy in metals
  • Structure and Thermodynamic Properties
  • The energy of a system
  • Definition of the entropy
  • The thermodynamic functions in terms of the partition function
  • The molecular partition function
  • The chemical potential
  • Application to translational degrees of freedom
  • Partition function of the harmonic oscillator
  • The monatomic solid
  • The rotational partition function
  • The electronic partition function
  • Ortho- and para-hydrogen
  • General expressions for the partition function
  • The equilibrium constant in terms of the partition functions
  • Transport Properties
  • Introductory remarks
  • Transport properties
  • The general equation for transport
  • Thermal conductivity in a gas
  • Collisions in a gas; The mean free path
  • Final expression for the thermal conductivity
  • Viscosity
  • Molecular diameters
  • Diffusion
  • Summary of transport properties in a gas
  • The nonsteady state
  • The Poiseuille Formula
  • The viscosimeter
  • Electrical Conduction
  • Electrical transport
  • Conduction in metals
  • The Hall effect
  • The electrical current in ionic solutions
  • The measurement of conductivity in electrolytic solutions
  • The migration of ions
  • The determination of A oc
  • Transference numbers
  • Molar ion conductivities
  • Applications of conductance measurements
  • Stokes’s law
  • Conductivities of the hydrogen and hydroxyl ions
  • Temperature dependence of the ion conductivities
  • The Onsager equation
  • Conductance at high fields and high frequencies
  • Conductance in nonaqueous solvents
  • Diffusion and charge transport
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • I Empirical Laws and Mechanism
  • Introduction
  • Rate measurements
  • Rate laws
  • First-order reactions
  • Second-order reactions
  • Higher-order reactions
  • Determining the order of a reaction
  • The dependence of rate of reaction on temperature
  • Mechanism
  • Opposing reactions; The hydrogen-iodine reaction
  • Consecutive reactions
  • Unimolecular decompositions; Lindemann mechanism
  • Complex reactions The hydrogen-bromine reaction
  • Free-radical mechanisms
  • The temperature dependence of the rate constant for a
  • complex reaction
  • Branching chains; Explosions
  • Nuclear fission; The nuclear reactor and the “atomic” bomb
  • Reactions in solution
  • Relaxation methods
  • Catalysis
  • Enzyme catalysis
  • Acid-base catalysis
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Theoretical Aspects
  • Introduction
  • The activation energy
  • The collision theory of reaction rates
  • Termolecular reactions
  • Unimolecular reactions
  • Irreversible thermodynamics
  • The theory of absolute reaction rates
  • Comparison of the collision theory with the absolute reaction rate theory
  • Gibbs energy and entropy of activation
  • Reactions in solution
  • Ionic reactions; Salt effects
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Heterogeneous Reactions, Electrolysis, Photochemistry
  • Heterogeneous reactions
  • Steps in the mechanism of surface reactions
  • Simple decompositions on surfaces
  • Bimolecular reactions on surfaces
  • The role of the surface in catalysis
  • Electrolysis and polarization
  • Polarization at an electrode
  • Measurement of overvoltage
  • The current-potential relation
  • General consequences of the current-potential relation
  • Corrosion
  • Photochemistry
  • The Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence
  • Photophysical processes; Fluorescence and phosphorescence
  • Flash photolysis
  • Absorption and emission spectra of organic molecules
  • Absorption with dissociation
  • Examples of photochemical reactions
  • Photosensitized reactions
  • Photosynthesis
  • The photo stationary state
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Polymers
  • Introduction
  • Types of macromolecules
  • Polymer solutions
  • The thermodynamics of polymer solutions
  • Molar masses and molar mass distributions
  • Methods of measuring molar masses
Share book:

Related Free Books

No data was found
Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition Gilbert W Castellan

Book Details

Author

Language

Pages

Size

Format

Physical Chemistry 3rd Edition Gilbert W Castellan

Related Books

What's the problem with this file?

Attention !

Help us remove any copyrighted material that may be posted on our site.

We ask you to inform us of any infringing material that may be unintentionally published on our site to remove it.

Reach us at: [email protected]

Attention !

Help us remove any copyrighted material that may be posted on our site.

We ask you to inform us of any infringing material that may be unintentionally published on our site to remove it.

Reach us at: [email protected]