**Download Free PDF | Reinforced Concrete Design 2nd Edition by Sunnikrishna Pillai and Devdas Menon.**

## Contents of Reinforced Concrete Design

**REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES**- Introduction
- Plain and Reinforced Concrete
- Plain Concrete
- Reinforced Concrete
- Objectives of Structural Design
- Reinforced Concrete Construction
- Structural Systems
- Reinforced Concrete Buildings
- Floor Systems
- Vertical Framing System
- Lateral Load Resisting Systems
- Structural Analysis and Design
- Design Codes and Handbooks
- Purpose of Codes
- Basic Code for Design
- Loading Standards
- Design Handbooks
- Other Related Codes
- Review Questions
- References
**BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES**- Introduction
- Concrete Technology
- VIII CONTENTS
- Cement
- Portland Cements
- Other Cements
- Tests on Cements
- Aggregate
- Aggregate Properties and Tests
- Grading Requirements of Aggregate
- Water
- Water Content and Workability of Concrete
- Water Cement Ratio and Strength
- Water for Curing
- Admixtures
- Types of Chemical Admixtures
- Types of Mineral Admixtures
- Grade of Concrete
- Characteristic Strength
- Concrete Mix Design
- Nominal Mix Concrete
- Design Mix Concrete
- Behaviour of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression
- Influence of Size of Test Specimen
- Stress Strain Curves
- Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson s Ratio
- Influence of Duration of Loading on Stress Strain Curve
- Maximum Compressive Stress of Concrete in Design Practice
- Behaviour of Concrete under Tension
- Modulus of Rupture
- Splitting Tensile Strength
- Stress Strain Curve of Concrete in Tension
- Shear Strength and Tensile Strength
- Behaviour of Concrete under Combined Stresses
- Biaxial State of Stress
- Influence of Shear Stress
- Behaviour under Triaxial Compression
- Creep of Concrete
- Time Dependent Behaviour under Sustained Loading
- Effects of Creep
- Factors Influencing Creep
- Creep Coefficient for Design
- Shrinkage and Temperature Effects in Concrete
- Shrinkage
- Temperature Effects
- Durability of Concrete
- Environmental Exposure Conditions and Code Requirements
- Permeability of Concrete
- Chemical Attack on Concrete
- Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel
- Reinforcing Steel
- Types Sizes and Grades
- Stress Strain Curves
- List of Relevant Indian Standards
- Review Questions
- References
**BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS**- Introduction
- Design Considerations
- Design Philosophies
- Working Stress Method WSM
- Ultimate Load Method ULM
- Probabilistic Analysis and Design
- Uncertainties in Design
- Classical Reliability Models
- Reliability Analysis and Design
- Levels of Reliability Methods
- Limit States Method LSM
- Limit States
- Multiple Safety Factor Formats
- Load and Resistance Factor Design Format
- Partial Safety Factor Format
- Code Recommendations for Limit States Design
- Characteristic Strengths and Loads
- Partial Safety Factors for Materials
- Partial Safety Factors for Loads
- Design Stress Strain Curve for Concrete
- Design Stress Strain Curve for Reinforcing Steel
- Review Questions
- References
**BEHAVIOUR IN FLEXURE**- Introduction
- Two Kinds of Problems Analysis and Design
- Bending Moments in Beams from Structural Analysis
- From Bending Moment to Flexural Stresses
- Theory of Flexure for Homogeneous Materials
- Fundamental Assumption
- Distribution of Stresses
- Linear Elastic Material
- Linear Elastic Analysis of Composite Sections
- Distribution of Strains and Stresses
- Concept of Transformed Section
- Modular Ratio and Cracking Moment
- Modular Ratio in Reinforced Concrete
- Transformed Area of Reinforcing Steel
- Cracking Moment
- Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete
- Uncracked Phase
- Linear Elastic Cracked Phase
- Stages Leading to Limit State of Collapse
- Analysis at Service Loads WSM
- Stresses in Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
- Permissible Stresses
- Allowable Bending Moment
- Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections
- Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections
- Analysis at Ultimate Limit State
- Assumptions in Analysis
- Limiting Depth of Neutral Axis
- Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
- Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections
- Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections
- Balanced Doubly Reinforced Sections
- Analysis of Slabs as Rectangular Beams
- Transverse Moments in One Way Slabs
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN OF BEAMS AND ONE WAY SLABS FOR FLEXURE**- Introduction
- Requirements of Flexural Reinforcement
- Concrete Cover
- Spacing of Reinforcing Bars
- Minimum and Maximum Areas of Flexural Reinforcement
- Requirements for Deflection Control
- Deflection Control by Limiting Span Depth Ratios
- Code Recommendations for Span Effective Depth Ratios
- Guidelines for Selection of Member Sizes
- General Guidelines for Beam Sizes
- General Guidelines for Slab Thicknesses
- Deep Beams and Slender Beams
- Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
- Fixing Dimensions of Rectangular Sections
- Determining Area of Tension Steel
- Design Check for Strength and Deflection Control
- Design of Continuous One Way Slabs
- Simplified Structural Analysis Use of Moment Coefficients
- Design Procedure
- Design of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
- Design Formulas
- Design Procedure for Given Mu
- Design of Flanged Beam Sections
- Transverse Reinforcement in Flange
- Design Procedure
- Curtailment of Flexural Tension Reinforcement
- Theoretical Bar Cut off Points
- Restrictions on Theoretical Bar Cut off Points
- Code Requirements
- Bending of Bars
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN FOR SHEAR**- Introduction
- Shear Stresses in Homogeneous Rectangular Beams
- Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete under Shear
- Modes of Cracking
- Shear Transfer Mechanisms
- Shear Failure Modes
- Nominal Shear Stress
- Members with Uniform Depth
- Members with Varying Depth
- Critical Sections for Shear Design
- Design Shear Strength without Shear Reinforcement
- Design Shear Strength of Concrete in Beams
- Design Shear Strength of Concrete in Slabs
- Influence of Axial Force on Design Shear Strength
- Design Shear Strength with Shear Reinforcement
- Types of Shear Reinforcement
- Factors Contributing to Ultimate Shear Resistance
- Limiting Ultimate Shear Resistance
- Shear Resistance of Web Reinforcement
- Influence of shear on longitudinal reinforcement
- Minimum Stirrup Reinforcement
- Additional Comments on Shear Reinforcement Design
- Interface Shear and Shear Friction
- Shear friction
- Recommendation for Interface Shear Transfer
- Shear Connectors in Flexural Members
- Shear along Horizontal Planes
- Shear Design Examples Conventional Method
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN FOR TORSION**- Introduction
- Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion
- Equilibrium Torsion
- Compatibility Torsion
- Estimation of Torsional Stiffness
- General Behaviour in Torsion
- Behaviour of Plain Concrete
- Behaviour of Concrete with Torsional Reinforcement
- Design Strength in Torsion
- Design Torsional Strength without Torsion Reinforcement
- Design Torsional Strength with Torsion Reinforcement
- Design Strength in Torsion Combined with Flexure
- Design Strength in Torsion Combined with Shear
- Analysis and Design Examples
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN FOR BOND**- Introduction
- Mechanisms of Bond Resistance
- Bond Stress
- Two Types of Bond
- Flexural Bond
- Effect of Flexural Cracking on Flexural Bond Stress
- Anchorage Development Bond
- Development Length
- Bond Failure and Bond Strength
- Bond Failure Mechanisms
- Bond Tests
- Factors Influencing Bond Strength
- Review of Code Requirements for Bond
- Flexural Bond
- Development Anchorage Bond
- Bends Hooks and Mechanical Anchorages
- Splicing of Reinforcement
- Lap Splices
- Welded Splices and Mechanical Connections
- Design Examples
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**ANALYSIS FOR DESIGN MOMENTS IN CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS**- Introduction
- Approximations in Structural Analysis
- Factored Moments from Elastic Analysis and Moment Redistribution
- Gravity Load Patterns for Maximum Design Moments
- Design Moments in Beams
- Design Moments in Columns
- Simplified Approximate Methods of Analysis
- Moment Coefficients for Continuous Beams under Gravity Loads
- Substitute Frame Method of Frame Analysis for Gravity Loads
- Simplified Methods for Lateral Load Analysis
- Proportioning of Member Sizes for Preliminary Design
- Estimation of Stiffnesses of Frame Elements
- Adjustment of Design Moments at Beam Column Junctions
- Inelastic Analysis and Moment Redistribution
- Limit Analysis
- Moment Redistribution
- Code Recommendations for Moment Redistribution
- Design Examples
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES DEFLECTION AND CRACKING**- Introduction
- Serviceability Limit States Deflection
- Deflection Limits
- Difficulties in Accurate Prediction of Deflections
- Short Term Deflections
- Deflections by Elastic Theory
- Effective Flexural Rigidity
- Tension Stiffening Effect
- Effective Second Moment of Area
- Average leff for Continuous Spans
- Effective Curvature Formulation
- Additional Short Term Deflection due to Live Loads alone
- Long Term Deflection
- Deflection Due to Differential Shrinkage
- Deflection Due to Creep
- Deflection Due to Temperature Effects
- Checks on Total Deflection
- Serviceability Limit State Cracking
- Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Members
- Limits on Cracking
- Factors Influencing Crackwidths
- Estimation of Flexural Crackwidth
- Estimation of Crackwidth under Direct and Eccentric Tension
- Thermal and Shrinkage Cracking
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN OF TWO WAY SLAB SYSTEMS**- Introduction
- One Way and Two Way Actions of Slabs
- Torsion in Two Way Slabs
- Difference Between Wall Supported Slabs and Beam Column Supported
- Slabs
- Design of Wall Supported Two Way Slabs
- Slab Thickness Based on Deflection Control Criterion
- Methods of Analysis
- Uniformly Loaded and Simply Supported Rectangular Slabs
- Uniformly Loaded Restrained Rectangular Slabs
- Shear Forces in Uniformly Loaded Two Way Slabs
- Design of Circular Triangular and other Slabs
- Two Way Slabs Subjected to Concentrated Loads
- Design of Beam Supported Two Way Slabs
- Behaviour of Beam Supported Slabs
- Use of Codal Moment Coefficients for Slabs Supported on Stiff Beams
- Slabs Supported on Flexible Beams Codal Limitations
- The Equivalent Frame Concept
- Design of Column Supported Slabs with without Beams
- under Gravity Loads
- Codal Procedures Based on the Equivalent Frame Concept
- Proportioning of Slab Thickness Drop Panel and Column Head
- Transfer of Shear and Moments to Columns in Beamless Two Way
- Slabs
- Direct Design Method
- Limitations
- Total Design Moments for a Span
- Longitudinal Distribution of Total Design Moment
- Apportioning of Moments to Middle Strips Column Strips and Beams
- Loads on the Edge Beam
- Torsion in the Edge Beam
- Moments in Columns and Pattern Loading
- Beam Shears in Two Way Slab Systems with Flexible Beams
- Equivalent Frame Method
- Equivalent Frame for Analysis
- Slab Beam Member
- Loading Patterns
- Design Moments in Slab Beam Members
- Design Moments in Columns and Torsion in Transverse Beam
- Reinforcement Details in Column Supported Two Way
- Slabs
- Shear in Column Supported Two Way Slabs
- One Way Shear or Beam Shear
- Two Way Shear or Punching Shear
- Design Examples of Column Supported Two Way Slabs
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN OF STAIRCASES**- Introduction
- Types of Staircases
- Geometrical Configurations
- Structural Classification
- Loads and Load Effects on Stair Slabs
- Dead Loads
- Live Loads
- Distribution of Gravity Loads in Special Cases
- Load Effects in Isolated Tread Slabs
- Load Effects in Waist Slabs
- Load Effects in Tread Riser Stairs
- Design Examples of Stair Slabs Spanning Transversely
- Design Examples of Stair Slabs Spanning Longitudinally
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS**- Introduction
- Classification of Columns Based on Type of Reinforcement
- Classification of Columns Based on Type of Loading
- Classification of Columns Based on Slenderness Ratios
- Estimation of Effective Length of a Column
- Definition of Effective Length
- Effective Length Ratios for Idealised Boundary Conditions
- Effective Length Ratios of Columns in Frames
- Code Requirements on Slenderness Limits Minimum
- Eccentricities and Reinforcement
- Slenderness Limits
- Minimum Eccentricities
- Code Requirements on Reinforcement and Detailing
- Design of Short Columns under Axial Compression
- Conditions of Axial Loading
- Behaviour under Service Loads
- Behaviour under Ultimate Loads
- Design Strength of Axially Loaded Short Columns
- Design of Short Columns under Compression with
- Uniaxial Bending
- Distribution of Strains at Ultimate Limit State
- Modes of Failure in Eccentric Compression
- Design Strength Axial Load Moment Interaction
- Analysis for Design Strength
- Use of Interaction Diagram as an Analysis Aid
- Non dimensional Interaction Diagrams as Design Aids
- Design of Short Columns under Axial Compression with
- Biaxial Bending
- Biaxial Eccentricities
- Interaction Surface for a Biaxially Loaded Column
- Code Procedure for Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns
- Design of Slender Columns
- Behaviour of Slender Columns
- Second Order Structural Analysis of Slender Column Structures
- Code Procedures for Design of Slender Columns
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**DESIGN OF FOOTINGS AND RETAINING WALLS**- Introduction
- Types of Footings
- Isolated Footings
- Combined Footings
- Wall Footings
- Soil Pressures under Isolated Footings
- Allowable Soil Pressure
- Distribution of Base Pressure
- Instability Problems Overturning and Sliding
- General Design Considerations and Code Requirements
- Factored Soil Pressure at Ultimate Limit State
- General Design Considerations
- Thickness of Footing Base Slab
- Design for Shear
- Design for Flexure
- Transfer of Forces at Column Base
- Plain Concrete Footings
- Design Examples of Isolated and Wall Footings
- Design of Combined Footings
- General
- Distribution of Soil Pressure
- Geometry of Two Column Combined Footings
- Design Considerations in Two Column Footings
- Types of Retaining Walls and Their Behaviour
- Earth Pressures and Stability Requirements
- Lateral Earth Pressures
- Effect of Surcharge on a Level Backfill
- Effect of Water in the Backfill
- Stability Requirements
- Soil Bearing Pressure Requirements
- Proportioning and Design of Cantilever and Counterfort Walls
- Position of Stem on Base Slab for Economical Design
- Proportioning and Design of Elements of Cantilever Walls
- Proportioning and Design of Elements of a Counterfort Wall
- Review Questions
- Problems
- References
**GOOD DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES**- Introduction
- Serviceability Failures
- Reasons for Building Failures
- Structural Integrity
- Design and Detailing Practices
- Reinforcement Layout
- Design Drawings
- Construction Details at Connections and special situations
- Beam and Column Joints Rigid Frame Joints
- Construction Joints
- Bar Supports and Cover
- Deflection Control
- Materials and Construction Practices
- Summary
- Review Questions
- References
**SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN**- Introduction
- Importance of Ductility in Seismic Design
- Measures of Ductility
- Energy Dissipation by Ductile Behaviour
- Flexural Yielding in Frames and Walls
- Major Design Considerations
- General Design Objectives
- Requirements of Stability and Stiffness
- Materials
- Foundations
- Flexural Members in Ductile Frames
- Columns and Frame Members Subject to Bending and Axial Load
- Joints in Ductile Frames
- Shear Walls Flexural Walls
- Infill frames
- Soft storey
- Performance limit states
- Closure
- Review Questions
- References
- Selected Special Topics