Reinforced Concrete Design 2nd Edition by Sunnikrishna Pillai and Devdas Menon

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Reinforced Concrete Design by Sunnikrishna and Devdas

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Contents of Reinforced Concrete Design

  • REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
  • Introduction
  • Plain and Reinforced Concrete
  • Plain Concrete
  • Reinforced Concrete
  • Objectives of Structural Design
  • Reinforced Concrete Construction
  • Structural Systems
  • Reinforced Concrete Buildings
  • Floor Systems
  • Vertical Framing System
  • Lateral Load Resisting Systems
  • Structural Analysis and Design
  • Design Codes and Handbooks
  • Purpose of Codes
  • Basic Code for Design
  • Loading Standards
  • Design Handbooks
  • Other Related Codes
  • Review Questions
  • References
  • BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
  • Introduction
  • Concrete Technology
  • VIII CONTENTS
  • Cement
  • Portland Cements
  • Other Cements
  • Tests on Cements
  • Aggregate
  • Aggregate Properties and Tests
  • Grading Requirements of Aggregate
  • Water
  • Water Content and Workability of Concrete
  • Water Cement Ratio and Strength
  • Water for Curing
  • Admixtures
  • Types of Chemical Admixtures
  • Types of Mineral Admixtures
  • Grade of Concrete
  • Characteristic Strength
  • Concrete Mix Design
  • Nominal Mix Concrete
  • Design Mix Concrete
  • Behaviour of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression
  • Influence of Size of Test Specimen
  • Stress Strain Curves
  • Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson s Ratio
  • Influence of Duration of Loading on Stress Strain Curve
  • Maximum Compressive Stress of Concrete in Design Practice
  • Behaviour of Concrete under Tension
  • Modulus of Rupture
  • Splitting Tensile Strength
  • Stress Strain Curve of Concrete in Tension
  • Shear Strength and Tensile Strength
  • Behaviour of Concrete under Combined Stresses
  • Biaxial State of Stress
  • Influence of Shear Stress
  • Behaviour under Triaxial Compression
  • Creep of Concrete
  • Time Dependent Behaviour under Sustained Loading
  • Effects of Creep
  • Factors Influencing Creep
  • Creep Coefficient for Design
  • Shrinkage and Temperature Effects in Concrete
  • Shrinkage
  • Temperature Effects
  • Durability of Concrete
  • Environmental Exposure Conditions and Code Requirements
  • Permeability of Concrete
  • Chemical Attack on Concrete
  • Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel
  • Reinforcing Steel
  • Types Sizes and Grades
  • Stress Strain Curves
  • List of Relevant Indian Standards
  • Review Questions
  • References
  • BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS
  • Introduction
  • Design Considerations
  • Design Philosophies
  • Working Stress Method WSM
  • Ultimate Load Method ULM
  • Probabilistic Analysis and Design
  • Uncertainties in Design
  • Classical Reliability Models
  • Reliability Analysis and Design
  • Levels of Reliability Methods
  • Limit States Method LSM
  • Limit States
  • Multiple Safety Factor Formats
  • Load and Resistance Factor Design Format
  • Partial Safety Factor Format
  • Code Recommendations for Limit States Design
  • Characteristic Strengths and Loads
  • Partial Safety Factors for Materials
  • Partial Safety Factors for Loads
  • Design Stress Strain Curve for Concrete
  • Design Stress Strain Curve for Reinforcing Steel
  • Review Questions
  • References
  • BEHAVIOUR IN FLEXURE
  • Introduction
  • Two Kinds of Problems Analysis and Design
  • Bending Moments in Beams from Structural Analysis
  • From Bending Moment to Flexural Stresses
  • Theory of Flexure for Homogeneous Materials
  • Fundamental Assumption
  • Distribution of Stresses
  • Linear Elastic Material
  • Linear Elastic Analysis of Composite Sections
  • Distribution of Strains and Stresses
  • Concept of Transformed Section
  • Modular Ratio and Cracking Moment
  • Modular Ratio in Reinforced Concrete
  • Transformed Area of Reinforcing Steel
  • Cracking Moment
  • Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete
  • Uncracked Phase
  • Linear Elastic Cracked Phase
  • Stages Leading to Limit State of Collapse
  • Analysis at Service Loads WSM
  • Stresses in Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
  • Permissible Stresses
  • Allowable Bending Moment
  • Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections
  • Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections
  • Analysis at Ultimate Limit State
  • Assumptions in Analysis
  • Limiting Depth of Neutral Axis
  • Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
  • Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections
  • Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections
  • Balanced Doubly Reinforced Sections
  • Analysis of Slabs as Rectangular Beams
  • Transverse Moments in One Way Slabs
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN OF BEAMS AND ONE WAY SLABS FOR FLEXURE
  • Introduction
  • Requirements of Flexural Reinforcement
  • Concrete Cover
  • Spacing of Reinforcing Bars
  • Minimum and Maximum Areas of Flexural Reinforcement
  • Requirements for Deflection Control
  • Deflection Control by Limiting Span Depth Ratios
  • Code Recommendations for Span Effective Depth Ratios
  • Guidelines for Selection of Member Sizes
  • General Guidelines for Beam Sizes
  • General Guidelines for Slab Thicknesses
  • Deep Beams and Slender Beams
  • Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
  • Fixing Dimensions of Rectangular Sections
  • Determining Area of Tension Steel
  • Design Check for Strength and Deflection Control
  • Design of Continuous One Way Slabs
  • Simplified Structural Analysis Use of Moment Coefficients
  • Design Procedure
  • Design of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
  • Design Formulas
  • Design Procedure for Given Mu
  • Design of Flanged Beam Sections
  • Transverse Reinforcement in Flange
  • Design Procedure
  • Curtailment of Flexural Tension Reinforcement
  • Theoretical Bar Cut off Points
  • Restrictions on Theoretical Bar Cut off Points
  • Code Requirements
  • Bending of Bars
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN FOR SHEAR
  • Introduction
  • Shear Stresses in Homogeneous Rectangular Beams
  • Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete under Shear
  • Modes of Cracking
  • Shear Transfer Mechanisms
  • Shear Failure Modes
  • Nominal Shear Stress
  • Members with Uniform Depth
  • Members with Varying Depth
  • Critical Sections for Shear Design
  • Design Shear Strength without Shear Reinforcement
  • Design Shear Strength of Concrete in Beams
  • Design Shear Strength of Concrete in Slabs
  • Influence of Axial Force on Design Shear Strength
  • Design Shear Strength with Shear Reinforcement
  • Types of Shear Reinforcement
  • Factors Contributing to Ultimate Shear Resistance
  • Limiting Ultimate Shear Resistance
  • Shear Resistance of Web Reinforcement
  • Influence of shear on longitudinal reinforcement
  • Minimum Stirrup Reinforcement
  • Additional Comments on Shear Reinforcement Design
  • Interface Shear and Shear Friction
  • Shear friction
  • Recommendation for Interface Shear Transfer
  • Shear Connectors in Flexural Members
  • Shear along Horizontal Planes
  • Shear Design Examples Conventional Method
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN FOR TORSION
  • Introduction
  • Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion
  • Equilibrium Torsion
  • Compatibility Torsion
  • Estimation of Torsional Stiffness
  • General Behaviour in Torsion
  • Behaviour of Plain Concrete
  • Behaviour of Concrete with Torsional Reinforcement
  • Design Strength in Torsion
  • Design Torsional Strength without Torsion Reinforcement
  • Design Torsional Strength with Torsion Reinforcement
  • Design Strength in Torsion Combined with Flexure
  • Design Strength in Torsion Combined with Shear
  • Analysis and Design Examples
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN FOR BOND
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Bond Resistance
  • Bond Stress
  • Two Types of Bond
  • Flexural Bond
  • Effect of Flexural Cracking on Flexural Bond Stress
  • Anchorage Development Bond
  • Development Length
  • Bond Failure and Bond Strength
  • Bond Failure Mechanisms
  • Bond Tests
  • Factors Influencing Bond Strength
  • Review of Code Requirements for Bond
  • Flexural Bond
  • Development Anchorage Bond
  • Bends Hooks and Mechanical Anchorages
  • Splicing of Reinforcement
  • Lap Splices
  • Welded Splices and Mechanical Connections
  • Design Examples
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • ANALYSIS FOR DESIGN MOMENTS IN CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
  • Introduction
  • Approximations in Structural Analysis
  • Factored Moments from Elastic Analysis and Moment Redistribution
  • Gravity Load Patterns for Maximum Design Moments
  • Design Moments in Beams
  • Design Moments in Columns
  • Simplified Approximate Methods of Analysis
  • Moment Coefficients for Continuous Beams under Gravity Loads
  • Substitute Frame Method of Frame Analysis for Gravity Loads
  • Simplified Methods for Lateral Load Analysis
  • Proportioning of Member Sizes for Preliminary Design
  • Estimation of Stiffnesses of Frame Elements
  • Adjustment of Design Moments at Beam Column Junctions
  • Inelastic Analysis and Moment Redistribution
  • Limit Analysis
  • Moment Redistribution
  • Code Recommendations for Moment Redistribution
  • Design Examples
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES DEFLECTION AND CRACKING
  • Introduction
  • Serviceability Limit States Deflection
  • Deflection Limits
  • Difficulties in Accurate Prediction of Deflections
  • Short Term Deflections
  • Deflections by Elastic Theory
  • Effective Flexural Rigidity
  • Tension Stiffening Effect
  • Effective Second Moment of Area
  • Average leff for Continuous Spans
  • Effective Curvature Formulation
  • Additional Short Term Deflection due to Live Loads alone
  • Long Term Deflection
  • Deflection Due to Differential Shrinkage
  • Deflection Due to Creep
  • Deflection Due to Temperature Effects
  • Checks on Total Deflection
  • Serviceability Limit State Cracking
  • Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Members
  • Limits on Cracking
  • Factors Influencing Crackwidths
  • Estimation of Flexural Crackwidth
  • Estimation of Crackwidth under Direct and Eccentric Tension
  • Thermal and Shrinkage Cracking
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN OF TWO WAY SLAB SYSTEMS
  • Introduction
  • One Way and Two Way Actions of Slabs
  • Torsion in Two Way Slabs
  • Difference Between Wall Supported Slabs and Beam Column Supported
  • Slabs
  • Design of Wall Supported Two Way Slabs
  • Slab Thickness Based on Deflection Control Criterion
  • Methods of Analysis
  • Uniformly Loaded and Simply Supported Rectangular Slabs
  • Uniformly Loaded Restrained Rectangular Slabs
  • Shear Forces in Uniformly Loaded Two Way Slabs
  • Design of Circular Triangular and other Slabs
  • Two Way Slabs Subjected to Concentrated Loads
  • Design of Beam Supported Two Way Slabs
  • Behaviour of Beam Supported Slabs
  • Use of Codal Moment Coefficients for Slabs Supported on Stiff Beams
  • Slabs Supported on Flexible Beams Codal Limitations
  • The Equivalent Frame Concept
  • Design of Column Supported Slabs with without Beams
  • under Gravity Loads
  • Codal Procedures Based on the Equivalent Frame Concept
  • Proportioning of Slab Thickness Drop Panel and Column Head
  • Transfer of Shear and Moments to Columns in Beamless Two Way
  • Slabs
  • Direct Design Method
  • Limitations
  • Total Design Moments for a Span
  • Longitudinal Distribution of Total Design Moment
  • Apportioning of Moments to Middle Strips Column Strips and Beams
  • Loads on the Edge Beam
  • Torsion in the Edge Beam
  • Moments in Columns and Pattern Loading
  • Beam Shears in Two Way Slab Systems with Flexible Beams
  • Equivalent Frame Method
  • Equivalent Frame for Analysis
  • Slab Beam Member
  • Loading Patterns
  • Design Moments in Slab Beam Members
  • Design Moments in Columns and Torsion in Transverse Beam
  • Reinforcement Details in Column Supported Two Way
  • Slabs
  • Shear in Column Supported Two Way Slabs
  • One Way Shear or Beam Shear
  • Two Way Shear or Punching Shear
  • Design Examples of Column Supported Two Way Slabs
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN OF STAIRCASES
  • Introduction
  • Types of Staircases
  • Geometrical Configurations
  • Structural Classification
  • Loads and Load Effects on Stair Slabs
  • Dead Loads
  • Live Loads
  • Distribution of Gravity Loads in Special Cases
  • Load Effects in Isolated Tread Slabs
  • Load Effects in Waist Slabs
  • Load Effects in Tread Riser Stairs
  • Design Examples of Stair Slabs Spanning Transversely
  • Design Examples of Stair Slabs Spanning Longitudinally
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Columns Based on Type of Reinforcement
  • Classification of Columns Based on Type of Loading
  • Classification of Columns Based on Slenderness Ratios
  • Estimation of Effective Length of a Column
  • Definition of Effective Length
  • Effective Length Ratios for Idealised Boundary Conditions
  • Effective Length Ratios of Columns in Frames
  • Code Requirements on Slenderness Limits Minimum
  • Eccentricities and Reinforcement
  • Slenderness Limits
  • Minimum Eccentricities
  • Code Requirements on Reinforcement and Detailing
  • Design of Short Columns under Axial Compression
  • Conditions of Axial Loading
  • Behaviour under Service Loads
  • Behaviour under Ultimate Loads
  • Design Strength of Axially Loaded Short Columns
  • Design of Short Columns under Compression with
  • Uniaxial Bending
  • Distribution of Strains at Ultimate Limit State
  • Modes of Failure in Eccentric Compression
  • Design Strength Axial Load Moment Interaction
  • Analysis for Design Strength
  • Use of Interaction Diagram as an Analysis Aid
  • Non dimensional Interaction Diagrams as Design Aids
  • Design of Short Columns under Axial Compression with
  • Biaxial Bending
  • Biaxial Eccentricities
  • Interaction Surface for a Biaxially Loaded Column
  • Code Procedure for Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns
  • Design of Slender Columns
  • Behaviour of Slender Columns
  • Second Order Structural Analysis of Slender Column Structures
  • Code Procedures for Design of Slender Columns
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • DESIGN OF FOOTINGS AND RETAINING WALLS
  • Introduction
  • Types of Footings
  • Isolated Footings
  • Combined Footings
  • Wall Footings
  • Soil Pressures under Isolated Footings
  • Allowable Soil Pressure
  • Distribution of Base Pressure
  • Instability Problems Overturning and Sliding
  • General Design Considerations and Code Requirements
  • Factored Soil Pressure at Ultimate Limit State
  • General Design Considerations
  • Thickness of Footing Base Slab
  • Design for Shear
  • Design for Flexure
  • Transfer of Forces at Column Base
  • Plain Concrete Footings
  • Design Examples of Isolated and Wall Footings
  • Design of Combined Footings
  • General
  • Distribution of Soil Pressure
  • Geometry of Two Column Combined Footings
  • Design Considerations in Two Column Footings
  • Types of Retaining Walls and Their Behaviour
  • Earth Pressures and Stability Requirements
  • Lateral Earth Pressures
  • Effect of Surcharge on a Level Backfill
  • Effect of Water in the Backfill
  • Stability Requirements
  • Soil Bearing Pressure Requirements
  • Proportioning and Design of Cantilever and Counterfort Walls
  • Position of Stem on Base Slab for Economical Design
  • Proportioning and Design of Elements of Cantilever Walls
  • Proportioning and Design of Elements of a Counterfort Wall
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • References
  • GOOD DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES
  • Introduction
  • Serviceability Failures
  • Reasons for Building Failures
  • Structural Integrity
  • Design and Detailing Practices
  • Reinforcement Layout
  • Design Drawings
  • Construction Details at Connections and special situations
  • Beam and Column Joints Rigid Frame Joints
  • Construction Joints
  • Bar Supports and Cover
  • Deflection Control
  • Materials and Construction Practices
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • References
  • SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN
  • Introduction
  • Importance of Ductility in Seismic Design
  • Measures of Ductility
  • Energy Dissipation by Ductile Behaviour
  • Flexural Yielding in Frames and Walls
  • Major Design Considerations
  • General Design Objectives
  • Requirements of Stability and Stiffness
  • Materials
  • Foundations
  • Flexural Members in Ductile Frames
  • Columns and Frame Members Subject to Bending and Axial Load
  • Joints in Ductile Frames
  • Shear Walls Flexural Walls
  • Infill frames
  • Soft storey
  • Performance limit states
  • Closure
  • Review Questions
  • References
  • Selected Special Topics

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