Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion by Henning Struchtrup

Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion

Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion by Henning Struchtrup

Contents of Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion

  • Introduction: Why Thermodynamics?
  • Energy and Work in Our World
  • Mechanical and Thermodynamical Forces
  • Systems, Balance Laws, Property Relations
  • Thermodynamics as Engineering Science
  • Thermodynamic Analysis
  • Applications
  • Systems, States, and Processes
  • The Closed System
  • Micro and Macro
  • Mechanical State Properties
  • Extensive and Intensive Properties
  • Specific Properties
  • Molar Properties
  • Inhomogeneous States
  • Processes and Equilibrium States
  • Quasi-static and Fast Processes
  • Reversible and Irreversible Processes
  • Temperature and the Zeroth Law
  • Thermometers and Temperature Scale
  • Gas Temperature Scale
  • Thermal Equation of State
  • Ideal Gas Law
  • A Note on Problem Solving
  • Example: Air in a Room
  • Example: Air in a Refrigerator
  • More on Pressure
  • The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Conservation of Energy
  • Total Energy
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Potential Energy
  • Internal Energy and the Caloric Equation of State
  • Work and Power
  • Exact and Inexact Differentials
  • Heat Transfer
  • The First Law for Reversible Processes
  • The Specific Heat at Constant Volume
  • Enthalpy
  • Example: Equilibration of Temperature
  • Example: Uncontrolled Expansion of a Gas
  • Example: Friction Loss
  • Example: Heating Problems
  • Problems
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • The Second Law
  • Entropy and the Trend to Equilibrium
  • Entropy Flux
  • Entropy in Equilibrium
  • Entropy as Property: The Gibbs Equation
  • T-S-Diagram
  • The Entropy Balance
  • The Direction of Heat Transfer
  • Internal Friction
  • Newton’s Law of Cooling
  • Zeroth Law and Second Law
  • Example: Equilibration of Temperature
  • Example: Uncontrolled Expansion of a Gas
  • What Is Entropy?
  • Entropy and Disorder
  • Entropy and Life
  • The Entropy Flux Revisited
  • Problems
  • Energy Conversion and the Second Law
  • Energy Conversion
  • Heat Engines
  • The Kelvin-Planck Statement
  • Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
  • Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements
  • Thermodynamic Temperature
  • Perpetual Motion Engines
  • Reversible and Irreversible Processes
  • Internally and Externally Reversible Processes
  • Irreversibility and Work Loss
  • Examples
  • Problems
  • Properties and Property Relations
  • State Properties and Their Relations
  • Phases
  • Phase Changes
  • Saturated Liquid-Vapor Mixtures
  • Identifying States
  • Example: Condensation of Saturated Steam
  • Superheated Vapor
  • Compressed Liquid
  • The Ideal Gas
  • Monatomic Gases (Noble Gases)
  • Specific Heats and Cold Gas Approximation
  • Real Gases
  • Fully Incompressible Solids and Liquids
  • Problems
  • Reversible Processes in Closed Systems
  • Standard Processes
  • Basic Equations
  • Closed System Cycles
  • Thermodynamic Cycles
  • Carnot Cycle
  • Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
  • Internal Combustion Engines
  • Otto Cycle
  • Example: Otto Cycle
  • Diesel Cycle
  • Example: Diesel Cycle
  • Dual Cycle
  • Atkinson Cycle
  • Problems
  • Open Systems
  • Flows in Open Systems
  • Conservation of Mass
  • Flow Work and Energy Transfer
  • Entropy Transfer
  • Open Systems in Steady State Processes
  • One Inlet, One Exit Systems
  • Entropy Generation in Mass Transfer
  • Adiabatic Compressors, Turbines and Pumps
  • Heating and Cooling of a Pipe Flow
  • Throttling Devices
  • Adiabatic Nozzles and Diffusers
  • Isentropic Efficiencies
  • Summary: Open System Devices
  • Examples: Open System Devices
  • Closed Heat Exchangers
  • Open Heat Exchangers: Adiabatic Mixing
  • Examples: Heat Exchangers
  • Problems
  • Basic Open System Cycles
  • Steam Turbine: Rankine Cycle
  • Example: Rankine Cycle
  • Vapor Refrigeration/Heat Pump Cycle
  • Example: Vapor Compression Refrigerator
  • Gas Turbine: Brayton Cycle
  • Example: Brayton Cycle
  • Gas Refrigeration System: Inverse Brayton Cycle
  • Problems
  • Efficiencies and Irreversible Losses
  • Irreversibility and Work Loss
  • Reversible Work and Second Law Efficiency
  • Example: Carnot Engine with External Irreversibility
  • Example: Space Heating
  • Example: Entropy Generation in Heat Transfer
  • Work Potential of a Flow (Exhaust Losses)
  • Heat Engine Driven by Hot Combustion Gas
  • Exergy
  • Problems
  • Vapor Engines
  • Boiler Exhaust Regeneration
  • Regenerative Rankine Cycle
  • Example: Steam Cycles with Feedwater Heaters
  • Cogeneration Plants
  • Refrigeration Systems
  • Linde Method for Gas Liquefaction
  • Problems
  • Gas Engines
  • Stirling Cycle
  • Ericsson Cycle
  • Compression with Intercooling
  • Gas Turbine Cycles with Regeneration and Reheat
  • Brayton Cycle with Intercooling and Reheat
  • Combined Cycle
  • The Solar Tower
  • Simple Chimney
  • Aircraft Engines
  • Problems
  • Compressible Flow: Nozzles and Diffusers
  • Sub- and Supersonic Flows
  • Speed of Sound
  • Speed of Sound in an Ideal Gas
  • Area-Velocity Relation
  • Nozzle Flows
  • Converging Nozzle
  • Example: Safety Valve
  • Laval Nozzle
  • Rockets, Ramjet and Scramjet
  • Example: Ramjet
  • Problems
  • Transient and Inhomogeneous Processes in Open Systems
  • Introduction
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Heating of a House
  • Reversible Filling of an Adiabatic Container
  • Reversible Discharge from an Adiabatic Container
  • Reversible Discharge after Cooling
  • Reversible Filling of a Gas Container with Heat
  • Exchange
  • CAES: Compressed Air Energy Storage
  • Problems
  • More on Property Relations
  • Measurability of Properties
  • Thermodynamic Potentials and Maxwell Relations
  • Two Useful Relations
  • Relation between Specific Heats
  • Measurement of Properties
  • Example: Gibbs Free Energy as Potential
  • Compressibility, Thermal Expansion
  • Example: Van der Waals Gas
  • Joule-Thomson Coefficient
  • Example: Inversion Curve for the Van der Waals Gas
  • Problems
  • Thermodynamic Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium Conditions
  • Equilibrium in Isolated Systems
  • Barometric and Hydrostatic Formulas
  • Thermodynamic Stability
  • Equilibrium in Non-isolated Systems
  • Interpretation of the Barometric Formula
  • Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems
  • Phase Equilibrium
  • Example: Phase Equilibrium for the Van der Waals
  • Gas
  • Clapeyron Equation
  • Example: Estimate of Heat of Evaporation
  • Example: Ice Skating
  • Problems
  • Mixtures
  • Introduction
  • Mixture Composition
  • Example: Composition and Molar Mass of Air
  • Mixture Properties
  • Mixing Volume, Heat of Mixing and Entropy of Mixing
  • Ideal Gas Mixtures
  • Energy, Enthalpy and Specific Heats for Ideal Gases
  • Entropy of Mixing for Ideal Gas
  • Gibbs Paradox
  • Example: Isentropic Expansion through a Nozzle
  • Example: Isochoric Mixing of Two Gases at
  • Different p, T
  • Ideal Mixtures
  • Entropy of Mixing and Separation Work
  • Non-ideal Mixtures
  • Problems
  • Psychrometrics
  • Characterization of Moist Air
  • Dewpoint
  • Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperature
  • Psychrometric Chart
  • Dehumidification
  • Humidification with Steam
  • Evaporative Cooling
  • Adiabatic Mixing
  • Cooling Towers
  • Example: Cooling Tower
  • Problems
  • The Chemical Potential
  • Definition and Interpretation
  • Properties of the Chemical Potential
  • Gibbs and Gibbs-Duhem Equations
  • Mass Based Chemical Potential
  • The Chemical Potential for an Ideal Mixture
  • The Chemical Potential for an Ideal Gas Mixture
  • The Chemical Potential as Driving Force for Mass
  • Transfer
  • Problems
  • Mixing and Separation
  • Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
  • Osmotic Pressure for Dilute Solutions
  • Example: Pfeffer Tube
  • Desalination in a Continuous Process
  • Reversible Mixing: Osmotic Power Generation
  • Example: Desalination in Piston-Cylinder Device
  • Example: Removal of CO
  • Problems
  • Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures
  • Phase Mixtures
  • Gibbs’ Phase Rule
  • Liquid-Vapor-Mixtures: Idealized Raoult’s Law
  • Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures
  • Distillation
  • Saturation Pressure and Temperature of a Solvent
  • Freezing of a Liquid Solution
  • Non-ideal Mixtures: Activity and Fugacity
  • A Simple Model for Heat of Mixing and Activity
  • Gas Solubility: Henry’s Law
  • Phase Diagrams with Azeotropes
  • Problems
  • Reacting Mixtures
  • Stoichiometric Coefficients
  • Mass and Mole Balances
  • Heat of Reaction
  • Heating Value
  • Enthalpy of Formation
  • The Third Law of Thermodynamics
  • The Third Law and Absolute Zero
  • Law of Mass Action
  • Law of Mass Action for Ideal Mixtures and Ideal Gases
  • Example: NH Production (Haber-Bosch Process)
  • Le Chatelier Principle
  • Multiple Reactions
  • Problems
  • Activation of Reactions
  • Approaching Chemical Equilibrium
  • Reaction Rates and the Chemical Constant
  • Gibbs Free Energy of Activation
  • Entropy Generation
  • Problems
  • Combustion
  • Fuels
  • Combustion Air
  • Example: Mole and Mass Flow Balances
  • Example: Exhaust Water
  • First and Second Law for Combustion Systems
  • Adiabatic Flame Temperature
  • Example: Adiabatic Flame Temperature
  • Closed System Combustion
  • Example: Closed System Combustion
  • Entropy Generation in Closed System Combustion
  • Work Potential of a Fuel
  • Example: Work Losses in a CH Fired Steam
  • Power Plant
  • Problems
  • Thermodynamics of Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Potential
  • Fuel Cell Efficiency
  • Nernst Equation
  • Mass Transfer Losses
  • Resistance Losses
  • Activation Overpotential
  • Voltage/Current and Power/Current Diagrams
  • Crossover Losses
  • Electrolyzers
  • Hydrogen

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