Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering 3rd Edition by Colin Bayliss and Brian Hardy

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Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering

PDF Free Download | Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering 3rd Edition by Colin Bayliss and Brian Hardy

Contents of Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering

  • Introduction
  • Load flow
  • Purpose
  • Sample study
  • System stability
  • Introduction
  • Analytical aspects
  • Steady state stability
  • Transient stability
  • Dynamic stability
  • Effect of induction motors
  • Data requirements and interpretation of transient
  • stability studies
  • Case studies
  • Short circuit analysis
  • Purpose
  • Sample study
  • Drawings and Diagrams
  • Introduction
  • Block diagrams
  • Schematic diagrams
  • Method of representation
  • Main circuits
  • Control, signalling and monitoring circuits
  • Manufacturers’ drawings
  • Combined wiring/cabling diagrams
  • British practice
  • European practice
  • Other systems
  • Computer aided design (CAD)
  • Case study
  • Graphical symbols
  • Appendix A: Relay identification – numerical codes
  • Appendix B: Comparison between German, British,
  • US/Canadian and international symbols
  • B General circuit elements
  • B Operating mechanisms
  • B Switchgear
  • Substation Layouts
  • Introduction
  • Substation design considerations
  • Security of supply
  • Extendibility
  • Maintainability
  • Operational flexibility
  • Protection arrangements
  • Short circuit limitations
  • Land area
  • Cost
  • Alternative layouts
  • Single busbar
  • Transformer feeder
  • Mesh
  • Ring
  • Double busbar
  • Circuit breaker
  • Space requirements
  • Introduction
  • Safety clearances
  • Phase–phase and phase–earth clearances
  • Substation Auxiliary Power Supplies
  • Introduction
  • DC supplies
  • Battery and charger configurations
  • Battery charger components
  • Installation requirements
  • Typical enquiry data – DC switchboard
  • Batteries
  • Introduction
  • Battery capacity
  • Characteristics of batteries
  • Battery sizing calculations
  • Typical enquiry data
  • AC supplies
  • Power sources
  • LVAC switchboard fault level
  • Auxiliary transformer LV connections
  • Allowance for future extension
  • Typical enquiry data
  • Earthing transformer selection
  • Uninterruptible power supplies
  • Current and Voltage Transformers
  • Introduction
  • Current transformers
  • Introduction
  • Protection CT classifications
  • Metering CTs
  • Design and construction considerations
  • Terminal markings
  • Specifications
  • Voltage transformers
  • Introduction
  • Electromagnetic VTs
  • Capacitor VTs
  • Specifications
  • Future trends
  • Insulators
  • Introduction
  • Insulator materials
  • Polymeric and resin materials
  • Glass and porcelain
  • Insulator types
  • Post insulators
  • Cap and pin insulators
  • Long rod
  • Pollution control
  • Environment/creepage distances
  • Remedial measures
  • Calculation of specific creepage path
  • Insulator specification
  • Standards
  • Design characteristics
  • Tests
  • Sample and routine tests
  • Technical particulars
  • Substation Building Services
  • Introduction
  • Lighting
  • Terminology
  • Internal lighting
  • External lighting
  • Control
  • Distribution characterization
  • Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning
  • Air circulation
  • Air-conditioning
  • Heating
  • Fire detection and suppression
  • Introduction
  • Fire extinguishers
  • Access, first aid and safety
  • Fire detection
  • Fire suppression
  • Cables, control panels and power supplies
  • Earthing and Bonding
  • Introduction
  • Design criteria
  • Touch and step voltages
  • Touch and step voltage limits
  • Substation earthing calculations
  • Environmental conditions
  • Earthing materials
  • Earth resistance and earth potential rise
  • Hazard voltage tolerable limits
  • Computer simulation
  • References
  • Insulation Co-ordination
  • Introduction
  • System voltages
  • Power frequency voltage
  • Over voltages
  • Clearances
  • Air
  • SF
  • Procedures for co-ordination
  • The IEC standard approach
  • Statistical approach
  • Non-statistical approach
  • Surge protection
  • Rod or spark gaps
  • Surge arresters
  • References
  • Relay Protection
  • Introduction
  • System configurations
  • Faults
  • Unearthed systems
  • Impedance earthed systems
  • Solidly earthed systems
  • Network arrangements
  • Power system protection principles
  • Discrimination by time
  • Discrimination by current magnitude
  • Discrimination by time and fault direction
  • Unit protection
  • Signalling channel assistance
  • Current relays
  • Introduction
  • Inverse definite minimum time lag
  • (IDMTL) relays
  • Alternative characteristic curves
  • Plotting relay curves on log/log graph paper
  • Current relay application examples
  • Differential protection schemes
  • Biased differential protection
  • High impedance protection
  • Transformer protection application examples
  • Pilot wire unit protection
  • Busbar protection
  • Distance relays
  • Introduction
  • Basic principles
  • Relay characteristics
  • Zones of protection
  • Switched relays
  • Typical overhead transmission line protection
  • schemes
  • Auxiliary relays
  • Tripping and auxiliary
  • AC auxiliary relays
  • Timers
  • Undervoltage
  • Underfrequency
  • Computer assisted grading exercise
  • Basic input data
  • Network fault levels
  • CT ratios and protection devices
  • Relay settings
  • Practical distribution network case study
  • Introduction
  • Main substation protection
  • Traction system protection
  • kV distribution system and protection
  • philosophy
  • kV pilot wire unit protection
  • kV system back-up protection
  • Use of earth fault indicators
  • Summary
  • Recent advances in control, protection and
  • monitoring
  • Background
  • Developments
  • References
  • Fuses and Miniature Circuit Breakers
  • Introduction
  • Fuses
  • Types and standards
  • Definitions and terminology
  • HRC fuses
  • High voltage fuses
  • Cartridge fuse construction
  • Fuse operation
  • High speed operation
  • Discrimination
  • Cable protection
  • Motor protection
  • Semiconductor protection
  • Miniature circuit breakers
  • Operation
  • Standards
  • Application
  • References
  • Cables
  • Introduction
  • Codes and standards
  • Types of cables and materials
  • General design criteria
  • Cable construction
  • Submarine cables
  • Joints and terminations
  • Cable sizing
  • Introduction
  • Cables laid in air
  • Cables laid direct in ground
  • Cables laid in ducts
  • Earthing and bonding
  • Short circuit ratings
  • Calculation examples
  • Calculation of losses in cables
  • Dielectric losses
  • Screen or sheath losses
  • Fire properties of cables
  • Introduction
  • Toxic and corrosive gases
  • Smoke emission
  • Oxygen index and temperature index
  • Flame retardance/flammability
  • Fire resistance
  • Mechanical properties
  • Control and communication cables
  • Low voltage and multicore control cables
  • Telephone cables
  • Fibre optic cables
  • Cable management systems
  • Standard cable laying arrangements
  • Computer aided cable installation systems
  • Interface definition
  • References
  • Switchgear
  • Introduction
  • Terminology and standards
  • Switching
  • Basic principles
  • Special switching cases
  • Switches and disconnectors
  • Contactors
  • Arc quenching media
  • Introduction
  • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF )
  • Vacuum
  • Oil
  • Air
  • Operating mechanisms
  • Closing and opening
  • Interlocking
  • Integral earthing
  • Equipment specifications
  • kV metal-clad indoor switchboard example
  • Open terminal kV switchgear examples
  • Distribution system switchgear example
  • Distribution ring main unit
  • References
  • Power Transformers
  • Introduction
  • Standards and principles
  • Basic transformer action
  • Transformer equivalent circuit
  • Voltage and current distribution
  • Transformer impedance representation
  • Tap changers
  • Useful standards
  • Voltage, impedance and power rating
  • General
  • Voltage drop
  • Impedance
  • Voltage ratio and tappings – general
  • Voltage ratio with off-circuit tappings
  • Voltage ratio and on-load tappings
  • Basic insulation levels (BIL)
  • Vector groups and neutral earthing
  • Calculation example to determine impedance
  • and tap range
  • Thermal design
  • General
  • Temperature rise
  • Loss of life expectancy with temperature
  • Ambient temperature
  • Solar heating
  • Transformer cooling classifications
  • Selection of cooling classification
  • Change of cooling classification in the field
  • Capitalization of losses
  • Constructional aspects
  • Cores
  • Windings
  • Tanks and enclosures
  • Cooling plant
  • Low fire risk types
  • Neutral earthing transformers
  • Reactors
  • Accessories
  • General
  • Buchholz relay
  • Sudden pressure relay and gas analyser relay
  • Pressure relief devices
  • Temperature monitoring
  • Breathers
  • Miscellaneous
  • Transformer ordering details
  • References
  • Substation and Overhead Line Foundations
  • Introduction
  • Soil investigations
  • Foundation types
  • Foundation design
  • Site works
  • Setting out
  • Excavation
  • Piling
  • Earthworks
  • Concrete
  • Steelwork fixings
  • Overhead Line Routing
  • Introduction
  • Routing objectives
  • Preliminary routing
  • Survey equipment requirements
  • Aerial survey
  • Ground survey
  • Ground soil conditions
  • Optimization
  • Detailed line survey and profile
  • Accuracy requirements
  • Profile requirements
  • Computer aided techniques
  • Structures, Towers and Poles
  • Introduction
  • Environmental conditions
  • Typical parameters
  • Effect on tower or support design
  • Conductor loads
  • Structure design
  • Lattice steel tower design considerations
  • Tower testing
  • Pole and tower types
  • Pole structures
  • Tower structures
  • References
  • Overhead Line Conductor and Technical Specifications
  • Introduction
  • Environmental conditions
  • Conductor selection
  • General
  • Types of conductor
  • Aerial bundled conductor and BLX
  • Conductor breaking strengths
  • Bi-metal connectors
  • Corrosion
  • Calculated electrical ratings
  • Heat balance equation
  • Power carrying capacity
  • Corona discharge
  • Overhead line calculation example
  • Design spans, clearances and loadings
  • Design spans
  • Conductor and earth wire spacing and clearances
  • Broken wire conditions
  • Conductor tests/inspections
  • Overhead line fittings
  • Fittings related to aerodynamic phenomena
  • Suspension clamps
  • Miscellaneous fittings
  • Overhead line impedance
  • Inductive reactance
  • Capacitive reactance
  • Resistance
  • Substation busbar selection – case study
  • Introduction
  • Conductor diameter/current carrying capacity
  • Conductor selection on weight basis
  • Conductor short circuit current capability
  • Conductor support arrangements
  • References
  • Testing and Commissioning
  • Introduction
  • Quality assurance
  • Introduction
  • Inspection release notice
  • Partial acceptance testing
  • System acceptance testing
  • Documentation and record systems
  • Works inspections and testing
  • Objectives
  • Specifications and responsibilities
  • Type tests
  • Routine production tests
  • Site inspection and testing
  • Pre-commissioning and testing
  • Maintenance inspection
  • On-line inspection and testing
  • Testing and commissioning methods
  • Switchgear
  • Transformers
  • Cables
  • Protection
  • Appendix A: Commissioning test procedure requirements
  • Appendix B: Drawings, diagrams and manuals
  • Electromagnetic Compatibility
  • Introduction
  • Standards
  • Compliance
  • Testing
  • Introduction
  • Magnetic field radiated emission measurements
  • Electric field radiated emission measurements
  • Conducted emission measurements
  • Immunity testing
  • Screening
  • Introduction
  • The use of screen wire
  • The use of screen boxes and Faraday enclosures
  • The use of screen floors in rooms
  • Typical useful formulae
  • Decibel reference levels
  • Field strength calculations
  • Mutual inductance between two long parallel
  • pairs of wires
  • Attenuation factors
  • Case studies
  • Screening power cables
  • Measurement of field strengths
  • References
  • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
  • Introduction
  • Programmable logic controllers
  • Functions
  • PLC selection
  • Application example
  • Power line carrier communication links
  • Introduction
  • Power line carrier communication principles
  • Supervisory control and data acquisition
  • Introduction
  • Typical characteristics
  • Design issues
  • Example (Channel Tunnel)
  • Software management
  • Software – a special case
  • Software life cycle
  • Software implementation practice
  • Software project management
  • References
  • Project Management
  • Introduction
  • Project evaluation
  • Introduction
  • Financial assessment
  • Economic assessment
  • Financing
  • Responsibilities for funding
  • Cash flow
  • Sources of finance
  • Export credit agencies
  • Funding risk reduction
  • Use of private finance
  • Project phases
  • The project life cycle
  • Cash flow
  • Bonds
  • Advance payments and retentions
  • Insurances
  • Project closeout
  • Terms and conditions of contract
  • Time, cost and quality
  • Basic types of contract
  • Standard terms and conditions of contract
  • Key clauses
  • Tendering
  • Choosing the contractor
  • Estimating
  • Tender evaluation
  • Model forms of contract – exercise
  • Appendix A: Project definition/questionnaire
  • Appendix B: Bidding checklist
  • Distribution Planning
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Demand or average demand
  • Maximum demand (MD)
  • Demand factor
  • Utilization factor (UF)
  • Load factor (LDF)
  • Diversity factor (DF)
  • Coincident factor (CF)
  • Load diversity
  • Loss factor (LSF)
  • Load duration
  • Loss equivalent hours
  • Peak responsibility factor (PRF)
  • Load forecasting
  • Users of load forecasts
  • The preparation of load forecasts
  • The micro load forecast
  • The macro load forecast
  • Nature of the load forecast
  • System parameters
  • Distribution feeder arrangements
  • Voltage drop calculations
  • Positive sequence resistance
  • Inductive reactance
  • Economic loading of distribution feeders
  • and transformers
  • System losses
  • System reliability
  • Introduction
  • Reliability functions
  • Predictability analysis
  • Drawings and materials take off
  • Power Quality – Harmonics in Power Systems
  • Introduction
  • The nature of harmonics
  • Introduction
  • Three phase harmonics
  • The generation of harmonics
  • General
  • Transformers
  • Converters
  • The thyristor bridge
  • Railway and tramway traction systems
  • Static VAr compensators and balancers
  • The effects of harmonics
  • Heating effects of harmonics
  • Harmonic overvoltages
  • Resonances
  • Interference
  • The limitation of harmonics
  • Harmonic filters
  • Capacitor detuning
  • Ferroresonance and subharmonics
  • Introduction
  • A physical description of ferroresonance
  • Subharmonics
  • Interharmonics
  • Harmonic studies
  • The requirement
  • The studies
  • Measurement
  • Case studies
  • References
  • Power Quality – Voltage Fluctuations
  • Introduction
  • The nature and cause of voltage disturbances in
  • power systems
  • Short-term interruptions and voltage dips
  • and peaks
  • Voltage fluctuations
  • Voltage flicker
  • Slow-voltage fluctuations
  • Voltage unbalance
  • Step-change events
  • Solutions
  • Energy storage
  • Balancing
  • Static var compensators
  • The STATCOM
  • Case study
  • References
  • Fundamentals
  • Introduction
  • Symbols and nomenclature
  • Symbols
  • Units and conversion tables
  • Alternating quantities
  • Vector representation
  • Vector algebra
  • The j operator
  • Exponential vector format
  • Polar co-ordinate vector format
  • Algebraic operations on vectors
  • The h operator
  • Sequence components
  • Theoretical background
  • Calculation methodology and approximations
  • Interpretation
  • Network fault analysis
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental formulae
  • Simplified network reduction example
  • Design optimization
  • Introduction
  • Technical problems
  • Loss reduction
  • Communication link gain or attenuation
  • Reactive compensation
  • Power factor correction calculation procedures

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