Water Quality Engineering by Benjamin and Lower

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Water Quality Engineering by Benjamin and Lower

PDF Free Download | Water Quality Engineering Physical Chemical Treatment Processes by Mark M. Benjamin and Desmond F. Lower .

Preface to Water Quality Engineering eBook

PURPOSE: This book has been written primarily as a textbook for a graduate course in physical/chemical treatment processes for water and wastewater.

However, it should also be useful to working environmental engineers in providing a thorough and cohesive understanding of processes that would not be easily achieved by reading journal articles.

While some introductory material is given for each subject, this book has been written with the assumption that the reader has had previous exposure, by class work or experience, with standard water and wastewater treatment processes.

To illustrate specific applications, examples are woven throughout this book and problems are given at the end of each chapter. This book is divided into four parts, as explained below.

ORGANIZATION: Part I: Chapters 1–4. This part of this book describes the fundamental tools for investigating and studying water and wastewater treatment processes.

It sets the stage for the subsequent chapters by presenting the background that is common to the analysis and understanding of many treatment processes.

At the end of this section, the reader should have an advanced understanding of how mass balances are used in continuous flow systems in which reactions occur,

and thereby will be able to understand and predict the changes in water quality that occur in such reactors.

Details of the construction of mass balances are presented in Chapter 1; descriptions of flow characteristics are given in Chapter 2;

the study of reaction kinetics is introduced in Chapter 3; and the material in the first three chapters is synthesized in Chapter 4.

These chapters are written in a completely generic manner (i.e., with little attention to the application of the material to specific processes of interest in water and wastewater treatment) to emphasize that the material is usable in a wide variety of situations.

Part II: Chapters 5–10. This part of the book describes processes for removing soluble contaminants from water (or, in a few cases, inserting chemicals of interest into water).

The processes are used in various applications, from treatment of municipal and industrial wastes to the production of drinking water or high-purity industrial process water.

All the major processes that are used broadly to remove soluble contaminants are covered in this section or in the membrane chapter that ends this book.

In each case, the emphasis is on fundamental understanding of the process dynamics through an analysis of batch (no flow) systems,

followed by the interplay between the reaction kinetics and the flow characteristics of systems in which these processes are often carried out.

The effects of process variables (i.e., hydraulic, equilibrium, and kinetic) on process design and process performance are emphasized.

The order of these chapters is such that they build on each other, and on the earlier chapters.

Gas transfer is covered in Chapters 5 and 6, because it is usually independent of other processes (even if they happen simultaneously) and it builds directly on the earlier fundamental chapters.

Gas transfer is one of the few common processes for which design is always closely related to theory,

and so the analysis can be quite fundamental and still provide a picture of how gas transfer is achieved in real-engineered systems.

Adsorption (Chapters 7 and 8) has many similarities to gas transfer and is often considered as a possible alternative process to gas stripping for the removal of specific contaminants, so it is presented next.

For both gas transfer and adsorption, two chapters are provided, with the first describing the underlying fundamental science and the second presenting the application in water treatment engineering.

Precipitation (Chapter 9) relies (in part) on adsorption and creates particles that must be removed in subsequent processes (that are covered in the third part of this book).

Chemical oxidation (and, to a lesser extent, reduction) (Chapter 10) is widely used for the destruction of organic compounds and the transformation of objectionable inorganics to less toxic species; the use of so-called advanced oxidation processes is expanding rapidly in the field and will continue to do so in future years.

Disinfection (the inactivation of microorganisms) relies directly on oxidation processes and is included in the chapter on oxidation and reduction.

Part III: Chapters 11–14. This part of the book focuses on processes for removing particulate materials from water.

Many contaminants of water are particles to begin with, are made into particles by precipitation, or are associated with particles by adsorption;

hence, particle removal processes are used to remove contaminants that came into the treatment system as soluble materials as well as to remove those that entered as particles.

Chapter 11 describes the fundamentals that are common to all the particle removal processes,

such as properties of particles and interactions of particle surfaces with chemicals in solution that determine much of particle behavior and particle–particle interactions.

Particle removal processes are intrinsically physical/chemical processes—the chemistry of all these processes is essentially identical and is therefore covered in this chapter.

This chapter also draws heavily on the chapters on adsorption and precipitation, as the chemistry of particle removal processes relies on these phenomena.

Subsequently, the chapters on flocculation (Chapter 12), gravity separations (Chapter 13), and granular media filtration (Chapter 14) emphasize the physical aspects of these processes.

These processes (or some subset of them) are often performed in series, and the order of the chapters reflects the order of their appearance in a treatment train. Part IV: Chapter 15.

An extensive chapter on membrane processes ends this book; membrane processes are used to remove both soluble and particulate materials.

Rather than divide this material into separate chapters so that they could be incorporated into Parts II and III, we thought that this subject should stand alone and be treated in a unified way.

The distinction between “what is a particle” and “what is a soluble entity” is blurry, and the continuum of membrane processes does not force one to make an arbitrary dividing

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