PDF Free Download | Wireless Technologies Circuits Systems and Devices by Krzysztof Iniewski
PREFACE to Wireless Technologies Circuits Systems and Devices
Advanced concepts for wireless communications present a vision of technology that is embedded in our surroundings and practically invisible, but present whenever required.
From established radio techniques like the global system for mobile communications (GSM), 802.11, or Bluetooth to more emerging like ultra wide band (UWB) or smart dust motes, a common denominator for future progress is underlying integrated circuit technology.
Although the use of deep-submicron CMOS processes allows for an unprecedented degree of scaling in digital circuitry, it complicates implementation and integration of traditional radio frequency (RF) circuits.
The explosive growth of standard cellular radios and radically different new wireless applications make it imperative to find architectural and circuit solutions to these design problems.
Two key issues for future silicon-based systems are scale of integration and low power dissipation. The concept of combining digital, memory, mixed-signal, and RF circuitry on one chip in the form of system-on-chip (SoC) has been around for a while.
However, the difficulty of integrating heterogeneous circuit design styles and processes onto one substrate still remains. Therefore, the system-in-package (SiP) concept seems to be gaining acceptance as well.
While it is true that heterogeneous circuits and architectures originally developed for their native technologies cannot be effectively integrated “as is” into a deep-submicron CMOS process,
one might ask the question whether those functions can be ported into more CMOS-friendly architectures to reap all the benefits of the digital design and flow.
It is not predestined that RF wireless frequency synthesizers be always charge-pump-based phase-locked loops (PLLs) with voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs), RF transmit up-converters be I/Q modulators, and receivers use only Gilbert cell or passive continuous-time mixers.
Performance of modern CMOS transistors is nowadays good enough for multiGHz RF applications. Low power has always been important for wireless communications.
With new developments in wireless sensor networks and wireless systems for medical applications, power dissipation is becoming the number one issue.
Wireless sensor network systems are being applied in critical applications in commerce, healthcare, and security. These systems have unique characteristics and face many implementation challenges.
The requirement of long operating life for a wireless sensor node under limited energy supply imposes the most severe design constraints.
This calls for innovative design methodologies at the circuit and system levels to address this rigorous requirement.
Wireless systems for medical applications hold a number of advantages over wired alternatives, including ease of use, reduced risk of infection, reduced risk of failure, reduced patient discomfort, enhanced mobility, and lower cost.
Typically, applications demand expertise in multiple disciplines, varying from analog sensors to digital processing cores, suggesting opportunities for extensive hardware integration.
The book addresses state-of-the-art CMOS design in the context of wireless communication for emerging applications: 3G/4G cellular telephony, wireless sensor networks, and wireless medical applications.
New exciting opportunities in body area networks, medical implants, satellite communications, automobile radar detection, and wearable electronics are discussed.
The book is a must for anyone serious about future wireless technologies. The book is written by top international experts on wireless circuit design representing both the integrated circuit (IC) industry and academia.
The intended audience is practicing engineers in wireless communication field with some integrated circuit background. The book can also be used as a recommended reading and supplementary material in graduate course curriculum.
The book is divided into three different parts. Part I provides a wireless system perspective. In Chapter 1, Ali Niknejad from Berkeley provides a broad introduction to various aspects of wireless circuit design.
In Chapter 2, researchers from the University of Pavia describe challenges in CMOS design for multistandard radios. Emerging new UWB technology and its CMOS/BiCMOS implementations are discussed by Domine M. W. Leenaerts from NXP/Philips in Chapter 3.
Yorgos Palaskas and Ashoke Ravi from Intel introduce novel circuit solutions for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology in Chapter 4. Danijela Cabric and Robert W. Brodersen from Berkeley reach even further out into the future in Chapter 5 by discussing possible architectures of cognitive radios.
Jan M. Rabaey and his group from Berkeley present an exciting perspective of short-reach wireless opportunities in Chapter 6.
This is followed by a comprehensive review of wireless transceivers for short-reach applications given by a group from Eindhoven University of Technology in Chapter 7.
Exciting applications of wireless technology to human body are discussed by a group from IMEC in Chapter 8. To conclude the fi rst part of the book, a research group from the University of Florida presents efforts toward integrating on-chip antennae on CMOS substrate in Chapter 9.
The second part of the book deals with chip architectures and circuit implementation issues. Robert Bogdan Staszewski from Texas Instruments discusses revolutionary Digital Radio Processing™ chip architecture in Chapter 10.
Low-noise amplifi ers (LNAs) are introduced by Leonid Belostotski and James Haslett from the University of Calgary in Chapter 11. Design of LNAs for W-band applications is covered by a group from the University of Toronto in Chapter 12.
In Chapter 13, Vladimir Prodanov and Mihai Banu from MHI Consulting provide an extensive treatment of power amplifiers. Vikas Choudhary from PMC-Sierra and Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski from CMOS cover integer PLLs in Chapter 14.
Fractional PLLs for multiband synthesis are discussed by a group from Carleton University in Chapter 15. Jan-Wim Eikenbroek from Bruco describes interesting design considerations for delta-sigma PLL used in Bluetooth applications in Chapter 16.
Finally, to close the second part of the book, Sebastian Magierowski and his collaborators describe RFIC parametric converters in Chapter 17.
The third part of the book deals with devices and technologies used to fabricate wireless integrated circuits (ICs). John J. Pekarik from IBM presents a broad overview of CMOS technology for wireless ICs in Chapter 18. Calvin Plett from Carleton University describes distributed effects in RF CMOS chips in Chapter 19.
In Chapter 20, a group from IMEC provides deep insight into substrate coupling effects that frequently limit chip performance.
Finally, the last two chapters are devoted to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), an emerging technology that is bound to modify the way RF integrated circuits are built.
Mourad N. El-Gamal and his collaborators from McGill University describe integration of CMOS and MEMS technologies in Chapter 21, while Alexandru Müller and his collaborators focus on membrane-based MEMS systems in Chapter 22.
I would like to thank all contributors for their hard work and carving out some precious time from their busy schedules to write their valuable chapters.
I would also like to thank the reviewers, editorial staff at CRC Press, and my colleagues who have reviewed portions of the manuscript.
Despite some challenges in integrating the material, there were over 70 contributors altogether, putting together this book was one of the most exciting projects in my life.
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